Factor H is a circulating protein that regulates activation of the alternative pathway (AP) of complement. Mutations and genetic variations of factor H are associated with several AP-mediated diseases, highlighting the critical role of factor H in AP regulation. AP-mediated inflammation is typically triggered by illness or tissue injury, however, and tissue injury can trigger AP activation in individuals with fully functional factor H. This suggests that factor H function is affected by local conditions within tissues. We hypothesized that inducible proteins impair the ability of factor H to locally control the AP, thereby increasing AP activation. We used purified murine factor H to immunoprecipitate binding partners from mouse kidneys. Using immunoaffinity liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified annexin A2 as a factor H binding partner. Further experiments showed that annexin A2 reduces the binding of factor H to cell surfaces. Recombinant annexin A2 impaired complement regulation by factor H and increased complement activation on renal cell surfaces in vitro and in vivo. In a murine model of acute pneumococcal otitis media, the administration of annexin A2 increased AP-mediated bacterial opsonization and clearance. In conclusion, the local production of annexin A2 within tissues suppresses regulation of the AP by factor H. Annexin A2 can contribute to AP-mediated tissue inflammation by locally impairing factor H function, but it can also improve complement-mediated bacterial clearance.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Immunology and Allergy