Background: Low satisfaction rates and severe complications are two major limitations for temporal hollowing augmentation using autologous fat grafting. Despite fat compartments in temporal region have been reported, its clinical applied anatomy for fat grafting have not been the subject of studies that show its benefits objectively and statistically. Objectives: To investigate temporal fat compartments and relative neurovascular structures in cadavers, developing a safe and effective fat grafting technique for temporal hollowing augmentation. Methods: The study was conducted on 8 cadavers (16 temples). The tissue layers, fat compartments, ligaments, and neurovascular structures in the temporal region were analysed. The variables were the number and location of sentinel veins, perforator vessels of the middle temporal vein. Measurements were taken with a digital calliper. Results: Two separate fat compartments, the lateral temporal-cheek fat compartment and lateral orbital fat compartment, were found in the subcutaneous layer, and two separate septum compartments, the upper and lower temporal compartment, were found in the loose areolar tissue layer. One sentinel vein and 1 to 6 perforator vessels were found to travel through the subcutaneous tissue layer, traverse the overlapping tissue layers in the lower temporal septum region, and finally join in the middle temporal vein. Conclusions: The four fat compartments in the temporal region are ideal receipt sites for fat grafting. The medial border of the junction of the hairline and temporal line is a safe and effective cannula entry site for temporal fat grafting. The anterior half of the lower temporal compartment is a "zone of caution" for temporal fat grafting.
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