Anaphase B

Jonathan M. Scholey, Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey, Ingrid Brust-Mascher

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

21 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical “modules” that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs), (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards, (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization, and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux. The differential combination of these modules in different cell types produces diversity in the anaphase B mechanism. Combinations of antagonist modules can create a force balance that maintains the dynamic pre-anaphase B spindle at constant length. Tipping such a force balance at anaphase B onset can initiate and control the rate of spindle elongation. The activities of the basic motor filament components of the anaphase B machinery are controlled by a network of non-motor MT-associated proteins (MAPs), for example the key MT cross-linker, Ase1p/PRC1, and various cell-cycle kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of anaphase B spindle elongation in eukaryotic cells and briefly mentions bacterial DNA segregation systems that operate by spindle elongation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number51
JournalBiology
Volume5
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Dec 1 2016

Fingerprint

Anaphase
anaphase
microtubules
Elongation
Microtubules
Poles
Dyneins
Kinesin
Bacterial DNA
Depolymerization
Microtubule-Associated Proteins
Chromosomes
Braking
Phosphoric Monoester Hydrolases
Spindle Poles
Machinery
kinesin
Chromosome Segregation
Chromatids
Peptide Hydrolases

Keywords

  • Anaphase B
  • Mitotic motors
  • Poleward flux
  • Spindle elongation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Microbiology(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

Cite this

Scholey, J. M., Civelekoglu-Scholey, G., & Brust-Mascher, I. (2016). Anaphase B. Biology, 5(4), [51]. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology5040051

Anaphase B. / Scholey, Jonathan M.; Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul; Brust-Mascher, Ingrid.

In: Biology, Vol. 5, No. 4, 51, 01.12.2016.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Scholey, JM, Civelekoglu-Scholey, G & Brust-Mascher, I 2016, 'Anaphase B', Biology, vol. 5, no. 4, 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology5040051
Scholey JM, Civelekoglu-Scholey G, Brust-Mascher I. Anaphase B. Biology. 2016 Dec 1;5(4). 51. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology5040051
Scholey, Jonathan M. ; Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul ; Brust-Mascher, Ingrid. / Anaphase B. In: Biology. 2016 ; Vol. 5, No. 4.
@article{64f4b5636a5e4b63a2718437c92536e1,
title = "Anaphase B",
abstract = "Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical “modules” that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs), (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards, (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization, and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux. The differential combination of these modules in different cell types produces diversity in the anaphase B mechanism. Combinations of antagonist modules can create a force balance that maintains the dynamic pre-anaphase B spindle at constant length. Tipping such a force balance at anaphase B onset can initiate and control the rate of spindle elongation. The activities of the basic motor filament components of the anaphase B machinery are controlled by a network of non-motor MT-associated proteins (MAPs), for example the key MT cross-linker, Ase1p/PRC1, and various cell-cycle kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of anaphase B spindle elongation in eukaryotic cells and briefly mentions bacterial DNA segregation systems that operate by spindle elongation.",
keywords = "Anaphase B, Mitotic motors, Poleward flux, Spindle elongation",
author = "Scholey, {Jonathan M.} and Gul Civelekoglu-Scholey and Ingrid Brust-Mascher",
year = "2016",
month = "12",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/biology5040051",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "5",
journal = "Biology",
issn = "2079-7737",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Anaphase B

AU - Scholey, Jonathan M.

AU - Civelekoglu-Scholey, Gul

AU - Brust-Mascher, Ingrid

PY - 2016/12/1

Y1 - 2016/12/1

N2 - Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical “modules” that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs), (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards, (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization, and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux. The differential combination of these modules in different cell types produces diversity in the anaphase B mechanism. Combinations of antagonist modules can create a force balance that maintains the dynamic pre-anaphase B spindle at constant length. Tipping such a force balance at anaphase B onset can initiate and control the rate of spindle elongation. The activities of the basic motor filament components of the anaphase B machinery are controlled by a network of non-motor MT-associated proteins (MAPs), for example the key MT cross-linker, Ase1p/PRC1, and various cell-cycle kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of anaphase B spindle elongation in eukaryotic cells and briefly mentions bacterial DNA segregation systems that operate by spindle elongation.

AB - Anaphase B spindle elongation is characterized by the sliding apart of overlapping antiparallel interpolar (ip) microtubules (MTs) as the two opposite spindle poles separate, pulling along disjoined sister chromatids, thereby contributing to chromosome segregation and the propagation of all cellular life. The major biochemical “modules” that cooperate to mediate pole-pole separation include: (i) midzone pushing or (ii) braking by MT crosslinkers, such as kinesin-5 motors, which facilitate or restrict the outward sliding of antiparallel interpolar MTs (ipMTs), (iii) cortical pulling by disassembling astral MTs (aMTs) and/or dynein motors that pull aMTs outwards, (iv) ipMT plus end dynamics, notably net polymerization, and (v) ipMT minus end depolymerization manifest as poleward flux. The differential combination of these modules in different cell types produces diversity in the anaphase B mechanism. Combinations of antagonist modules can create a force balance that maintains the dynamic pre-anaphase B spindle at constant length. Tipping such a force balance at anaphase B onset can initiate and control the rate of spindle elongation. The activities of the basic motor filament components of the anaphase B machinery are controlled by a network of non-motor MT-associated proteins (MAPs), for example the key MT cross-linker, Ase1p/PRC1, and various cell-cycle kinases, phosphatases, and proteases. This review focuses on the molecular mechanisms of anaphase B spindle elongation in eukaryotic cells and briefly mentions bacterial DNA segregation systems that operate by spindle elongation.

KW - Anaphase B

KW - Mitotic motors

KW - Poleward flux

KW - Spindle elongation

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85008237749&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85008237749&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/biology5040051

DO - 10.3390/biology5040051

M3 - Review article

AN - SCOPUS:85008237749

VL - 5

JO - Biology

JF - Biology

SN - 2079-7737

IS - 4

M1 - 51

ER -