Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine are naturally occurring members of the methylxanthine family; pentoxifylline, dyphylline and enprofylline are structurally related synthetic pharmaceuticals. Caffeine has predominantly central nervous system effects, theophylline, dyphylline and enprofylline have predominantly bronchodilator effects, while theobromine is associated with diuretic responses. Pentoxifylline is thought to increase red cell deformability and facilitate blood flow through capillary beds. The methylxanthines are not highly potent agents; they are typically administered in gram doses and they tend to have relatively long plasma half-lives. They remain detectable in plasma and urine for relatively long periods. Similarly, traces of the naturally occurring members of this family are not uncommonly identified in forensic samples. In this review we report on the detection, actions, uses and regularly control of this group of agents in performance horses.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||7|
|State||Published - Jan 1998|
ASJC Scopus subject areas