An in vitro model system to predict the bioaccessibility of heterocyclic amines from a cooked meat matrix

Kristen S. Kulp, Susan L. Fortson, Mark G. Knize, James S. Felton

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

41 Scopus citations


To understand the impact of variation in digestion parameters on the release of heterocyclic amines naturally formed during cooking, we developed and characterized a model system to assess the effect of amylase, pepsin, and pancreatin on digestion of well-done chicken. The amounts of MeIQx, DiMeIQx, IFP, and PhIP in the liquid portion of the digestate were compared to levels in the undigested meat to determine the percentage released (accessible fraction). Incubating the meat with amylase and pepsin did not change the accessibility of HAs when compared to incubation with water alone. In contrast, increasing amounts of pancreatin increased the accessibility up to 6.4-fold. Comparing the amounts of the HAs in the liquid to the solid fraction showed that there was more MeIQx, DiMeIQx, and IFP in the liquid fraction. In contrast, PhIP was equally divided between the solid and liquid fractions. For all four compounds, increasing the doneness of the meat decreased the amount of the compound accessible from the meat matrix. Our data suggest that bioaccessability of HAs may vary according to the polarity of the individual HAs and also may depend upon the doneness of the meat. These results may have important ramifications for human feeding studies, which assume that the total amount of each HA in the meat matrix is equally bioavailable.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1701-1710
Number of pages10
JournalFood and Chemical Toxicology
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 1 2003
Externally publishedYes


  • Digestion
  • Food mutagen
  • HA
  • IFP
  • MeIQx
  • PhIP

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science
  • Toxicology


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