An immunoassay for a urinary metabolite as a biomarker of human exposure to the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin

Ki Chang Ahn, Seung Jin Ma, Hsing Ju Tsai, Shirley J. Gee, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

26 Scopus citations


Permethrin is the most popular synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used in agriculture and public health. For the assessment of human exposure to permethrin, a competitive indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of the glycine conjugate of a major metabolite, cis-/trans-3-(2,2-dichlorovinyl)-2,2-dimethylcyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (DCCA), of permethrin was developed based on a polyclonal antibody. An assay based on an antibody with a high sensitivity was optimized and characterized. The IC50 value and the detection range for trans-DCCA-glycine, in the assay buffer were 1.2 and 0.2-7.0μg/L, respectively. The antibody recognized trans-DCCA-glycine and the mixture of cis-/trans-DCCA-glycine with an isomer range from 30:70 to 50:50 nearly equally. Little or no cross-reactivity to permethrin and its other free metabolites or glycine conjugates was measured. The integration of the ELISA and solid-phase extraction which was used to reduce the matrix effect from human urine samples provided for analysis of total cis-/trans-DCCA-glycine at low parts per billion levels in the samples. The limit of quantitation of the target analyte was 1.0 μg/L in urine with a limit of detection of 0.1μg/L in buffer. This assay might be a useful tool for monitoring human exposure to permethrin.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)713-722
Number of pages10
JournalAnalytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Issue number3
StatePublished - Feb 2006


  • Glycine metabolite
  • Human exposure
  • Permethrin
  • Polyclonal antibodies

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Clinical Biochemistry


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