An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in plasma and its application to farmers and consumers

Sarunya Thiphom, Tippawan Prapamontol, Somporn Chantara, Ampica Mangklabruks, Chaisuree Suphavilai, Ki Chang Ahn, Shirley J. Gee, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify a plasma biomarker of exposure to pyrethroid insecticides. A major metabolite, 3-phenoxybenzoic acid (3-PBA), can be detected in urine but urinary 3-PBA cannot be used to assess the active dose. The 3-PBA-adduct represents a much more persistent class of biomarkers than metabolites excreted into urine, having half-lives of up to several weeks or months. We developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for total 3-PBA including the adduct formed after alkaline hydrolysis, liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and solid phase extraction (SPE) of the sample. The developed ELISA had an IC 50 value of 26.7 ng mL -1. The intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (%CV) were lower than 5% and were within the optimum condition variance (OCV) range. The LLE cleanup technique satisfactorily eliminated the matrix effect from plasma samples before SPE and ELISA analysis yielding good recoveries (85.9-99.4%) with a limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng mL -1) that was 30- to 47-fold more sensitive than previous studies. Moreover, the method developed could separate more than 80% of 3-PBA from the adducted form. The method was successfully applied for the detection of the target in real samples obtained from consumers (n = 50) and farmers (n = 50). To our knowledge, this is the first ELISA method for detecting 3-PBA in the human plasma that has been applied to a field study.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3772-3778
Number of pages7
JournalAnalytical Methods
Volume4
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Engineering(all)
  • Chemical Engineering(all)

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    Thiphom, S., Prapamontol, T., Chantara, S., Mangklabruks, A., Suphavilai, C., Ahn, K. C., Gee, S. J., & Hammock, B. D. (2012). An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detecting 3-phenoxybenzoic acid in plasma and its application to farmers and consumers. Analytical Methods, 4(11), 3772-3778. https://doi.org/10.1039/c2ay25642h