An elementary introduction to stereology (Quantitative microscopy)

H. Elias, D. M. Hyde

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

180 Scopus citations


Stereology is a branch of applied mathematics used for the three-dimensional analysis of organs and materials from two-dimensional measurements. Stereologic methods are versatile, easily understood, and simply applied. This paper provides anatomists with a practical guide to stereologic techniques and concepts and to ancillary morphometric methods. These methods allow investigators to calculate volume, surface, and numerical densities; make shape determinations; and calculate size distributions for spheres and rotatory ellipsoids. Other topics covered in this article include sampling methods, correction factors for shrinkage and section thickness, index of folding, automated and semiautomated image analysis, and three-dimensional reconstruction from serial sections.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)412-446
Number of pages35
JournalAmerican Journal of Anatomy
Issue number4
StatePublished - 1980

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Anatomy


Dive into the research topics of 'An elementary introduction to stereology (Quantitative microscopy)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this