Children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are at an increased risk for lymphoproliferative and neoplastic disorders. Included among these are smooth muscle neoplasms such as leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas. There have been at least 15 reported cases of smooth muscle tumors in the approximately 8,000 children with AIDS, however the incidence in immunocompetent children is only two per ten million. The lesions in children with human immunodeficiency virus infection are usually found in the lung, liver, and gastrointestinal tract. Here, we present an unusual case of a 12-year-old African American girl with vertically acquired AIDS who presented to the pediatric emergency department with severe diffuse abdominal pain. She was ultimately found to have an appendiceal leiomyoma on abdominal exploration, the first reported case. Our report suggests that smooth muscle tumors of the appendix be included in the differential diagnosis of abdominal masses in children with AIDS.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health