Alternaria aerosol during a bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection alters the severity of subsequent re-infection and enhances IgE production

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Abstract

Background: Previous studies with cattle and rodent models have shown that bovine and human RSV infections influence the immune response to inhaled allergen. In the present study, we extended these observations to examine the effect of fungal allergen Alternaria alternata aerosol exposure (prior to and during BRSV infection) on the immune response and clinical outcome of a secondary BRSV infection. Methods: Calves were either Alternaria (Alt)/mock Alt (mAlt) and BRSV/mBRSV exposed. Exposures began on day -6 and continued every other day until day 6 post infection. A second set of aerosols/infection began on day 103 and continued as before. Clinical outcome during infections was measured in each group. IgG1, IgA, and IgE responses to Alternaria were measured in serum or bronchiolar alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Cytokine responses, including IL-4, were also measured. Results: Alternaria did not influence primary infection; however, the Alt/BRSV group had less disease than mAlt/BRSV group (median clinical score 8 vs 476.5; p≤0.01) after secondary infection. Exposure to Alternaria facilitated IgE antibody production in BRSV infected calves. IgE responses to Alternaria were higher in Alt/BRSV than Alt/mBRSV animals on day 10 (mean baseline fold increase 1.97 vs 1.06; p=0.013) and 109 (1.40 vs 0.810; p=0.008). Comparatively, Alt/BRSV calves had less Alternaria specific IgG1 than Alt/mBRSV calves on days 0, 107, 109, 113, 115, and 120 (p≤0.05) with more lung eosinophils and IL-4 secreting PBMCs. Conclusion: Alternaria aerosols during primary and secondary BRSV infections decreased disease in secondary infections; however, BRSV infection enhanced Th2 responses against inhaled Alternaria.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)138-156
Number of pages19
JournalComparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Volume29
Issue number2-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 2006

Fingerprint

Bovine respiratory syncytial virus
Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections
Alternaria
aerosols
Aerosols
Immunoglobulin E
Infection
infection
Coinfection
calves
interleukin-4
allergens
Interleukin-4
Allergens
immune response
Immunoglobulin G
Alternaria alternata
cattle

Keywords

  • Alternaria alternata
  • BRSV
  • IgE

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Immunology
  • Microbiology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

@article{a6e1da2b2189444b8ac4a6501dac6757,
title = "Alternaria aerosol during a bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection alters the severity of subsequent re-infection and enhances IgE production",
abstract = "Background: Previous studies with cattle and rodent models have shown that bovine and human RSV infections influence the immune response to inhaled allergen. In the present study, we extended these observations to examine the effect of fungal allergen Alternaria alternata aerosol exposure (prior to and during BRSV infection) on the immune response and clinical outcome of a secondary BRSV infection. Methods: Calves were either Alternaria (Alt)/mock Alt (mAlt) and BRSV/mBRSV exposed. Exposures began on day -6 and continued every other day until day 6 post infection. A second set of aerosols/infection began on day 103 and continued as before. Clinical outcome during infections was measured in each group. IgG1, IgA, and IgE responses to Alternaria were measured in serum or bronchiolar alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Cytokine responses, including IL-4, were also measured. Results: Alternaria did not influence primary infection; however, the Alt/BRSV group had less disease than mAlt/BRSV group (median clinical score 8 vs 476.5; p≤0.01) after secondary infection. Exposure to Alternaria facilitated IgE antibody production in BRSV infected calves. IgE responses to Alternaria were higher in Alt/BRSV than Alt/mBRSV animals on day 10 (mean baseline fold increase 1.97 vs 1.06; p=0.013) and 109 (1.40 vs 0.810; p=0.008). Comparatively, Alt/BRSV calves had less Alternaria specific IgG1 than Alt/mBRSV calves on days 0, 107, 109, 113, 115, and 120 (p≤0.05) with more lung eosinophils and IL-4 secreting PBMCs. Conclusion: Alternaria aerosols during primary and secondary BRSV infections decreased disease in secondary infections; however, BRSV infection enhanced Th2 responses against inhaled Alternaria.",
keywords = "Alternaria alternata, BRSV, IgE",
author = "Kalina, {W. V.} and Anderson, {Mark L} and Gershwin, {Laurel J}",
year = "2006",
month = "3",
doi = "10.1016/j.cimid.2006.03.002",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "29",
pages = "138--156",
journal = "Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases",
issn = "0147-9571",
publisher = "Elsevier Limited",
number = "2-3",

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TY - JOUR

T1 - Alternaria aerosol during a bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection alters the severity of subsequent re-infection and enhances IgE production

AU - Kalina, W. V.

AU - Anderson, Mark L

AU - Gershwin, Laurel J

PY - 2006/3

Y1 - 2006/3

N2 - Background: Previous studies with cattle and rodent models have shown that bovine and human RSV infections influence the immune response to inhaled allergen. In the present study, we extended these observations to examine the effect of fungal allergen Alternaria alternata aerosol exposure (prior to and during BRSV infection) on the immune response and clinical outcome of a secondary BRSV infection. Methods: Calves were either Alternaria (Alt)/mock Alt (mAlt) and BRSV/mBRSV exposed. Exposures began on day -6 and continued every other day until day 6 post infection. A second set of aerosols/infection began on day 103 and continued as before. Clinical outcome during infections was measured in each group. IgG1, IgA, and IgE responses to Alternaria were measured in serum or bronchiolar alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Cytokine responses, including IL-4, were also measured. Results: Alternaria did not influence primary infection; however, the Alt/BRSV group had less disease than mAlt/BRSV group (median clinical score 8 vs 476.5; p≤0.01) after secondary infection. Exposure to Alternaria facilitated IgE antibody production in BRSV infected calves. IgE responses to Alternaria were higher in Alt/BRSV than Alt/mBRSV animals on day 10 (mean baseline fold increase 1.97 vs 1.06; p=0.013) and 109 (1.40 vs 0.810; p=0.008). Comparatively, Alt/BRSV calves had less Alternaria specific IgG1 than Alt/mBRSV calves on days 0, 107, 109, 113, 115, and 120 (p≤0.05) with more lung eosinophils and IL-4 secreting PBMCs. Conclusion: Alternaria aerosols during primary and secondary BRSV infections decreased disease in secondary infections; however, BRSV infection enhanced Th2 responses against inhaled Alternaria.

AB - Background: Previous studies with cattle and rodent models have shown that bovine and human RSV infections influence the immune response to inhaled allergen. In the present study, we extended these observations to examine the effect of fungal allergen Alternaria alternata aerosol exposure (prior to and during BRSV infection) on the immune response and clinical outcome of a secondary BRSV infection. Methods: Calves were either Alternaria (Alt)/mock Alt (mAlt) and BRSV/mBRSV exposed. Exposures began on day -6 and continued every other day until day 6 post infection. A second set of aerosols/infection began on day 103 and continued as before. Clinical outcome during infections was measured in each group. IgG1, IgA, and IgE responses to Alternaria were measured in serum or bronchiolar alveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Cytokine responses, including IL-4, were also measured. Results: Alternaria did not influence primary infection; however, the Alt/BRSV group had less disease than mAlt/BRSV group (median clinical score 8 vs 476.5; p≤0.01) after secondary infection. Exposure to Alternaria facilitated IgE antibody production in BRSV infected calves. IgE responses to Alternaria were higher in Alt/BRSV than Alt/mBRSV animals on day 10 (mean baseline fold increase 1.97 vs 1.06; p=0.013) and 109 (1.40 vs 0.810; p=0.008). Comparatively, Alt/BRSV calves had less Alternaria specific IgG1 than Alt/mBRSV calves on days 0, 107, 109, 113, 115, and 120 (p≤0.05) with more lung eosinophils and IL-4 secreting PBMCs. Conclusion: Alternaria aerosols during primary and secondary BRSV infections decreased disease in secondary infections; however, BRSV infection enhanced Th2 responses against inhaled Alternaria.

KW - Alternaria alternata

KW - BRSV

KW - IgE

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U2 - 10.1016/j.cimid.2006.03.002

DO - 10.1016/j.cimid.2006.03.002

M3 - Article

VL - 29

SP - 138

EP - 156

JO - Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

JF - Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases

SN - 0147-9571

IS - 2-3

ER -