Alterations in metabolic status and headshaking behavior following intravenous administration of hypertonic solutions in horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking

Shara Sheldon, Monica R Aleman, Lais Costa, A. Cristina Santoyo, Quinn Howey, John E Madigan

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

3 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Trigeminal-nerve-mediated headshaking represents a major welfare challenge for owners and veterinarians and is caused by a low threshold firing of the trigeminal nerve resulting in pain manifested as violent head jerking that often terminates the horse’s career and life due to poor quality of life and suffering. As metabolic changes such as acid-base status and electrolytes play a role in nerve firing, this study sought to assess the effects following administration of hypertonic solutions on headshaking behavior in affected horses. This prospective randomized controlled crossover design utilized six horses affected with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and three treatment groups receiving intravenous administration of 5% dextrose solution at 2 mL/kg bwt (DS), NaCl 7.5% at 4 mL/kg bwt (HS), or NaHCO3 8.4% at 2 mmol/kg bwt (HB). Horses were assessed for headshaking behavior changes at times T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Venous blood variables: pH, HCO3 , standard base excess (SBE), Na+, Cl, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, total magnesium (tMg), glucose, and lactate were measured at T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T5, 15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Strong ion difference (SID) and anion gap (AG) were calculated for each time point. With HB treatment, there was greater than 50% reduction in headshaking rate. There was an effect of time on increasing headshaking rate. There was an effect of breed on headshaking rate. Changes in blood parameters following DS were virtually absent. Infusion of HS caused mild changes and did not vary much from baseline except for SID and AG. Only infusion of HB caused blood pH and HCO3 to be outside of the physiologic range (alkalemia and metabolic alkalosis, respectively), SBE to double or triple, AG to decrease, and SID to increase compared to baseline. Infusion of DS was followed by increase in blood glucose and decrease in blood Na+. Infusion of HS was followed by increase in Na+ and Cland decrease in Mg2+. Infusion of HB was followed by decrease in Mg2+. Blood tMg, K+, and Ca2+ decreased slightly, but did not vary greatly from baseline following any of the treatments, remaining within physiologic ranges. Changes in blood composition were transient. Among all treatments, only HB had an effect on headshaking rate. The limited effects following these fluids were likely due to normal mechanisms of regulation of blood levels of pH and electrolytes. Further investigations of changes in electrolytes that might affect nerve firing should be explored.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number102
JournalAnimals
Volume8
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Hypertonic Solutions
intravenous injection
Intravenous Administration
Horses
nerve tissue
horses
anions
blood
electrolytes
Acid-Base Equilibrium
ions
Electrolytes
Trigeminal Nerve
magnesium
Ions
blood composition
Magnesium
calcium
glucose
blood pH

Keywords

  • Equine
  • Headshaking
  • Horses
  • Hypertonic saline
  • Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate
  • Intravenous
  • Metabolic
  • PH
  • Trigeminal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

Alterations in metabolic status and headshaking behavior following intravenous administration of hypertonic solutions in horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking. / Sheldon, Shara; Aleman, Monica R; Costa, Lais; Santoyo, A. Cristina; Howey, Quinn; Madigan, John E.

In: Animals, Vol. 8, No. 7, 102, 01.07.2018.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{6a83c24503e547d88143e025b9146667,
title = "Alterations in metabolic status and headshaking behavior following intravenous administration of hypertonic solutions in horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking",
abstract = "Trigeminal-nerve-mediated headshaking represents a major welfare challenge for owners and veterinarians and is caused by a low threshold firing of the trigeminal nerve resulting in pain manifested as violent head jerking that often terminates the horse’s career and life due to poor quality of life and suffering. As metabolic changes such as acid-base status and electrolytes play a role in nerve firing, this study sought to assess the effects following administration of hypertonic solutions on headshaking behavior in affected horses. This prospective randomized controlled crossover design utilized six horses affected with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and three treatment groups receiving intravenous administration of 5{\%} dextrose solution at 2 mL/kg bwt (DS), NaCl 7.5{\%} at 4 mL/kg bwt (HS), or NaHCO3 8.4{\%} at 2 mmol/kg bwt (HB). Horses were assessed for headshaking behavior changes at times T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Venous blood variables: pH, HCO3 −, standard base excess (SBE), Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, total magnesium (tMg), glucose, and lactate were measured at T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T5, 15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Strong ion difference (SID) and anion gap (AG) were calculated for each time point. With HB treatment, there was greater than 50{\%} reduction in headshaking rate. There was an effect of time on increasing headshaking rate. There was an effect of breed on headshaking rate. Changes in blood parameters following DS were virtually absent. Infusion of HS caused mild changes and did not vary much from baseline except for SID and AG. Only infusion of HB caused blood pH and HCO3 − to be outside of the physiologic range (alkalemia and metabolic alkalosis, respectively), SBE to double or triple, AG to decrease, and SID to increase compared to baseline. Infusion of DS was followed by increase in blood glucose and decrease in blood Na+. Infusion of HS was followed by increase in Na+ and Cl−and decrease in Mg2+. Infusion of HB was followed by decrease in Mg2+. Blood tMg, K+, and Ca2+ decreased slightly, but did not vary greatly from baseline following any of the treatments, remaining within physiologic ranges. Changes in blood composition were transient. Among all treatments, only HB had an effect on headshaking rate. The limited effects following these fluids were likely due to normal mechanisms of regulation of blood levels of pH and electrolytes. Further investigations of changes in electrolytes that might affect nerve firing should be explored.",
keywords = "Equine, Headshaking, Horses, Hypertonic saline, Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate, Intravenous, Metabolic, PH, Trigeminal",
author = "Shara Sheldon and Aleman, {Monica R} and Lais Costa and Santoyo, {A. Cristina} and Quinn Howey and Madigan, {John E}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.3390/ani8070102",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "8",
journal = "Animals",
issn = "2076-2615",
publisher = "Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Alterations in metabolic status and headshaking behavior following intravenous administration of hypertonic solutions in horses with trigeminal-mediated headshaking

AU - Sheldon, Shara

AU - Aleman, Monica R

AU - Costa, Lais

AU - Santoyo, A. Cristina

AU - Howey, Quinn

AU - Madigan, John E

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Trigeminal-nerve-mediated headshaking represents a major welfare challenge for owners and veterinarians and is caused by a low threshold firing of the trigeminal nerve resulting in pain manifested as violent head jerking that often terminates the horse’s career and life due to poor quality of life and suffering. As metabolic changes such as acid-base status and electrolytes play a role in nerve firing, this study sought to assess the effects following administration of hypertonic solutions on headshaking behavior in affected horses. This prospective randomized controlled crossover design utilized six horses affected with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and three treatment groups receiving intravenous administration of 5% dextrose solution at 2 mL/kg bwt (DS), NaCl 7.5% at 4 mL/kg bwt (HS), or NaHCO3 8.4% at 2 mmol/kg bwt (HB). Horses were assessed for headshaking behavior changes at times T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Venous blood variables: pH, HCO3 −, standard base excess (SBE), Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, total magnesium (tMg), glucose, and lactate were measured at T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T5, 15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Strong ion difference (SID) and anion gap (AG) were calculated for each time point. With HB treatment, there was greater than 50% reduction in headshaking rate. There was an effect of time on increasing headshaking rate. There was an effect of breed on headshaking rate. Changes in blood parameters following DS were virtually absent. Infusion of HS caused mild changes and did not vary much from baseline except for SID and AG. Only infusion of HB caused blood pH and HCO3 − to be outside of the physiologic range (alkalemia and metabolic alkalosis, respectively), SBE to double or triple, AG to decrease, and SID to increase compared to baseline. Infusion of DS was followed by increase in blood glucose and decrease in blood Na+. Infusion of HS was followed by increase in Na+ and Cl−and decrease in Mg2+. Infusion of HB was followed by decrease in Mg2+. Blood tMg, K+, and Ca2+ decreased slightly, but did not vary greatly from baseline following any of the treatments, remaining within physiologic ranges. Changes in blood composition were transient. Among all treatments, only HB had an effect on headshaking rate. The limited effects following these fluids were likely due to normal mechanisms of regulation of blood levels of pH and electrolytes. Further investigations of changes in electrolytes that might affect nerve firing should be explored.

AB - Trigeminal-nerve-mediated headshaking represents a major welfare challenge for owners and veterinarians and is caused by a low threshold firing of the trigeminal nerve resulting in pain manifested as violent head jerking that often terminates the horse’s career and life due to poor quality of life and suffering. As metabolic changes such as acid-base status and electrolytes play a role in nerve firing, this study sought to assess the effects following administration of hypertonic solutions on headshaking behavior in affected horses. This prospective randomized controlled crossover design utilized six horses affected with trigeminal-mediated headshaking and three treatment groups receiving intravenous administration of 5% dextrose solution at 2 mL/kg bwt (DS), NaCl 7.5% at 4 mL/kg bwt (HS), or NaHCO3 8.4% at 2 mmol/kg bwt (HB). Horses were assessed for headshaking behavior changes at times T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Venous blood variables: pH, HCO3 −, standard base excess (SBE), Na+, Cl−, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, total magnesium (tMg), glucose, and lactate were measured at T0 (baseline, before infusion) and T5, 15, 30, 60, 120 min post infusion. Strong ion difference (SID) and anion gap (AG) were calculated for each time point. With HB treatment, there was greater than 50% reduction in headshaking rate. There was an effect of time on increasing headshaking rate. There was an effect of breed on headshaking rate. Changes in blood parameters following DS were virtually absent. Infusion of HS caused mild changes and did not vary much from baseline except for SID and AG. Only infusion of HB caused blood pH and HCO3 − to be outside of the physiologic range (alkalemia and metabolic alkalosis, respectively), SBE to double or triple, AG to decrease, and SID to increase compared to baseline. Infusion of DS was followed by increase in blood glucose and decrease in blood Na+. Infusion of HS was followed by increase in Na+ and Cl−and decrease in Mg2+. Infusion of HB was followed by decrease in Mg2+. Blood tMg, K+, and Ca2+ decreased slightly, but did not vary greatly from baseline following any of the treatments, remaining within physiologic ranges. Changes in blood composition were transient. Among all treatments, only HB had an effect on headshaking rate. The limited effects following these fluids were likely due to normal mechanisms of regulation of blood levels of pH and electrolytes. Further investigations of changes in electrolytes that might affect nerve firing should be explored.

KW - Equine

KW - Headshaking

KW - Horses

KW - Hypertonic saline

KW - Hypertonic sodium bicarbonate

KW - Intravenous

KW - Metabolic

KW - PH

KW - Trigeminal

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85049238104&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85049238104&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.3390/ani8070102

DO - 10.3390/ani8070102

M3 - Article

VL - 8

JO - Animals

JF - Animals

SN - 2076-2615

IS - 7

M1 - 102

ER -