Background: Asthma is a respiratory tract disorder characterized by airway hyper-reactivity and chronic inflammation. Allergic asthma is associated with the production of allergen-specific IgE and expansion of allergen-specific T-cell populations. Progression of allergic inflammation is driven by T-helper type 2 (Th2) mediators and is associated with alterations in the levels of lipid mediators. Objectives: Responses of the respiratory system to birch allergen provocation in allergic asthmatics were investigated. Eicosanoids and other oxylipins were quantified in the bronchoalveolar lumen to provide a measure of shifts in lipid mediators associated with allergen challenge in allergic asthmatics. Methods: Eighty-seven lipid mediators representing the cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX) and cytochrome P450 (CYP) metabolic pathways were screened via LC-MS/MS following off-line extraction of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). Multivariate statistics using OPLS were employed to interrogate acquired oxylipin data in combination with immunological markers. Results: Thirty-two oxylipins were quantified, with baseline asthmatics possessing a different oxylipin profile relative to healthy individuals that became more distinct following allergen provocation. The most prominent differences included 15-LOX-derived ω-3 and ω-6 oxylipins. Shared-and-Unique-Structures (SUS)-plot modeling showed a correlation (R 2 = 0.7) between OPLS models for baseline asthmatics (R 2Y[cum] = 0.87, Q 2[cum] = 0.51) and allergen-provoked asthmatics (R 2Y[cum] = 0.95, Q 2[cum] = 0.73), with the majority of quantified lipid mediators and cytokines contributing equally to both groups. Unique structures for allergen provocation included leukotrienes (LTB 4 and 6-trans-LTB 4), CYP-derivatives of linoleic acid (epoxides/diols), and IL-10. Conclusions: Differences in asthmatic relative to healthy profiles suggest a role for 15-LOX products of both ω-6 and ω-3 origin in allergic inflammation. Prominent differences at baseline levels indicate that non-symptomatic asthmatics are subject to an underlying inflammatory condition not observed with other traditional mediators. Results suggest that oxylipin profiling may provide a sensitive means of characterizing low-level inflammation and that even individuals with mild disease display distinct phenotypic profiles, which may have clinical ramifications for disease.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)