Algae-derived β-glucan enhanced gut health and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli

Kwangwook Kim, Amy Ehrlich, Vivian Perng, Jennifer A. Chase, Helen E Raybould, Xunde Li, Edward R Atwill, Rose Whelan, Adebayo Sokale, Yanhong Liu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Most of the commercially available β-glucans are derived from yeast, while there are limited research on algae-derived β-glucan in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan on diarrhea, gut permeability, and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thirty-six weaned pigs (7.69 ± 0.77 kg BW) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (n = 12): control diet and 2 additional diets containing either 54 or 108 mg/kg of β-glucan. The experiment lasted 17 d [5 d before and 12 d post inoculation (PI)]. The inoculum used in this experiment was F18 E. coli, containing heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin b, and shiga-lie toxin 2. The inoculation doses were 1010 cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 days. Diarrhea score (1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily to calculate frequency of diarrhea. Blood samples were collected on d 0 before E. coli challenge, and on d 2, 5, 8, and 12 PI to measure total and differential blood cell count in whole blood and several inflammatory markers in serum. Fresh jejunal tissues were collected from 4 pigs in the control group and high dose β-glucan group to analyze gut permeability on d 5 and d 12 PI with Ussing Chamber. Jejunal and ileal mucosa were also collected to measure the mRNA expression of several genes related to gut barrier function and immune responses. Results of this experiment revealed that inclusion of high dose β-glucan reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea (29.01% vs. 17.28%) for the entire experimental period. This was likely due to the reduced (P < 0.05) gut permeability and increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of gut barrier function genes (Claudin, Occludin, and MUC2) in jejunal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs as β-glucan supplemented. Supplementation of β-glucan also reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cells, neutrophils, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cortisol, and haptoglobin, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of several immune genes (IL1B, IL6, and TNFA) in ileal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs, compared with the control diet. In conclusion, in feed supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan alleviated diarrhea of F18 E. coli infected pigs by enhancing gut integrity. Feeding β-glucan also boosted host immune response against E. coli infection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)114-125
Number of pages12
JournalAnimal Feed Science and Technology
Volume248
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 1 2019

Fingerprint

algae
glucans
digestive system
immune response
Escherichia coli
swine
diarrhea
mucosa
permeability
toxins
dosage
blood serum
diet
heat
blood cell counts
haptoglobins
tumor necrosis factors
blood

Keywords

  • Algae-derived β-glucan
  • Gut barrier function
  • Gut immunity
  • Pathogenic E. coli
  • Weaned pigs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology

Cite this

Algae-derived β-glucan enhanced gut health and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli. / Kim, Kwangwook; Ehrlich, Amy; Perng, Vivian; Chase, Jennifer A.; Raybould, Helen E; Li, Xunde; Atwill, Edward R; Whelan, Rose; Sokale, Adebayo; Liu, Yanhong.

In: Animal Feed Science and Technology, Vol. 248, 01.02.2019, p. 114-125.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Kim, Kwangwook ; Ehrlich, Amy ; Perng, Vivian ; Chase, Jennifer A. ; Raybould, Helen E ; Li, Xunde ; Atwill, Edward R ; Whelan, Rose ; Sokale, Adebayo ; Liu, Yanhong. / Algae-derived β-glucan enhanced gut health and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli. In: Animal Feed Science and Technology. 2019 ; Vol. 248. pp. 114-125.
@article{b212492b6f3e4b71a80163e7ac83a596,
title = "Algae-derived β-glucan enhanced gut health and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli",
abstract = "Most of the commercially available β-glucans are derived from yeast, while there are limited research on algae-derived β-glucan in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan on diarrhea, gut permeability, and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thirty-six weaned pigs (7.69 ± 0.77 kg BW) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (n = 12): control diet and 2 additional diets containing either 54 or 108 mg/kg of β-glucan. The experiment lasted 17 d [5 d before and 12 d post inoculation (PI)]. The inoculum used in this experiment was F18 E. coli, containing heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin b, and shiga-lie toxin 2. The inoculation doses were 1010 cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 days. Diarrhea score (1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily to calculate frequency of diarrhea. Blood samples were collected on d 0 before E. coli challenge, and on d 2, 5, 8, and 12 PI to measure total and differential blood cell count in whole blood and several inflammatory markers in serum. Fresh jejunal tissues were collected from 4 pigs in the control group and high dose β-glucan group to analyze gut permeability on d 5 and d 12 PI with Ussing Chamber. Jejunal and ileal mucosa were also collected to measure the mRNA expression of several genes related to gut barrier function and immune responses. Results of this experiment revealed that inclusion of high dose β-glucan reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea (29.01{\%} vs. 17.28{\%}) for the entire experimental period. This was likely due to the reduced (P < 0.05) gut permeability and increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of gut barrier function genes (Claudin, Occludin, and MUC2) in jejunal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs as β-glucan supplemented. Supplementation of β-glucan also reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cells, neutrophils, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cortisol, and haptoglobin, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of several immune genes (IL1B, IL6, and TNFA) in ileal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs, compared with the control diet. In conclusion, in feed supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan alleviated diarrhea of F18 E. coli infected pigs by enhancing gut integrity. Feeding β-glucan also boosted host immune response against E. coli infection.",
keywords = "Algae-derived β-glucan, Gut barrier function, Gut immunity, Pathogenic E. coli, Weaned pigs",
author = "Kwangwook Kim and Amy Ehrlich and Vivian Perng and Chase, {Jennifer A.} and Raybould, {Helen E} and Xunde Li and Atwill, {Edward R} and Rose Whelan and Adebayo Sokale and Yanhong Liu",
year = "2019",
month = "2",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.12.004",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "248",
pages = "114--125",
journal = "Animal Feed Science and Technology",
issn = "0377-8401",
publisher = "Elsevier",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Algae-derived β-glucan enhanced gut health and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic E. coli

AU - Kim, Kwangwook

AU - Ehrlich, Amy

AU - Perng, Vivian

AU - Chase, Jennifer A.

AU - Raybould, Helen E

AU - Li, Xunde

AU - Atwill, Edward R

AU - Whelan, Rose

AU - Sokale, Adebayo

AU - Liu, Yanhong

PY - 2019/2/1

Y1 - 2019/2/1

N2 - Most of the commercially available β-glucans are derived from yeast, while there are limited research on algae-derived β-glucan in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan on diarrhea, gut permeability, and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thirty-six weaned pigs (7.69 ± 0.77 kg BW) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (n = 12): control diet and 2 additional diets containing either 54 or 108 mg/kg of β-glucan. The experiment lasted 17 d [5 d before and 12 d post inoculation (PI)]. The inoculum used in this experiment was F18 E. coli, containing heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin b, and shiga-lie toxin 2. The inoculation doses were 1010 cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 days. Diarrhea score (1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily to calculate frequency of diarrhea. Blood samples were collected on d 0 before E. coli challenge, and on d 2, 5, 8, and 12 PI to measure total and differential blood cell count in whole blood and several inflammatory markers in serum. Fresh jejunal tissues were collected from 4 pigs in the control group and high dose β-glucan group to analyze gut permeability on d 5 and d 12 PI with Ussing Chamber. Jejunal and ileal mucosa were also collected to measure the mRNA expression of several genes related to gut barrier function and immune responses. Results of this experiment revealed that inclusion of high dose β-glucan reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea (29.01% vs. 17.28%) for the entire experimental period. This was likely due to the reduced (P < 0.05) gut permeability and increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of gut barrier function genes (Claudin, Occludin, and MUC2) in jejunal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs as β-glucan supplemented. Supplementation of β-glucan also reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cells, neutrophils, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cortisol, and haptoglobin, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of several immune genes (IL1B, IL6, and TNFA) in ileal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs, compared with the control diet. In conclusion, in feed supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan alleviated diarrhea of F18 E. coli infected pigs by enhancing gut integrity. Feeding β-glucan also boosted host immune response against E. coli infection.

AB - Most of the commercially available β-glucans are derived from yeast, while there are limited research on algae-derived β-glucan in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to investigate the influence of dietary supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan on diarrhea, gut permeability, and immune responses of weaned pigs experimentally infected with a pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli). Thirty-six weaned pigs (7.69 ± 0.77 kg BW) were individually housed in disease containment rooms and randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments (n = 12): control diet and 2 additional diets containing either 54 or 108 mg/kg of β-glucan. The experiment lasted 17 d [5 d before and 12 d post inoculation (PI)]. The inoculum used in this experiment was F18 E. coli, containing heat-labile toxin, heat-stable toxin b, and shiga-lie toxin 2. The inoculation doses were 1010 cfu/3 mL oral dose daily for 3 days. Diarrhea score (1, normal, to 5, watery diarrhea) was recorded for each pig daily to calculate frequency of diarrhea. Blood samples were collected on d 0 before E. coli challenge, and on d 2, 5, 8, and 12 PI to measure total and differential blood cell count in whole blood and several inflammatory markers in serum. Fresh jejunal tissues were collected from 4 pigs in the control group and high dose β-glucan group to analyze gut permeability on d 5 and d 12 PI with Ussing Chamber. Jejunal and ileal mucosa were also collected to measure the mRNA expression of several genes related to gut barrier function and immune responses. Results of this experiment revealed that inclusion of high dose β-glucan reduced (P < 0.05) frequency of diarrhea (29.01% vs. 17.28%) for the entire experimental period. This was likely due to the reduced (P < 0.05) gut permeability and increased (P < 0.05) mRNA expression of gut barrier function genes (Claudin, Occludin, and MUC2) in jejunal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs as β-glucan supplemented. Supplementation of β-glucan also reduced (P < 0.05) white blood cells, neutrophils, serum tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α cortisol, and haptoglobin, and down-regulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expression of several immune genes (IL1B, IL6, and TNFA) in ileal mucosa of E. coli challenged pigs, compared with the control diet. In conclusion, in feed supplementation of algae-derived β-glucan alleviated diarrhea of F18 E. coli infected pigs by enhancing gut integrity. Feeding β-glucan also boosted host immune response against E. coli infection.

KW - Algae-derived β-glucan

KW - Gut barrier function

KW - Gut immunity

KW - Pathogenic E. coli

KW - Weaned pigs

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85059848389&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85059848389&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.12.004

DO - 10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2018.12.004

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:85059848389

VL - 248

SP - 114

EP - 125

JO - Animal Feed Science and Technology

JF - Animal Feed Science and Technology

SN - 0377-8401

ER -