The mechanisms resulting in resistance to next-generation antiandrogens in castration-resistant prostate cancer are incompletely understood. Numerous studies have determined that constitutively active androgen receptor (AR) signaling or full-length AR bypass mechanisms may contribute to the resistance. Previous studies established that AKR1C3 and AR-V7 play important roles in enzalutamide and abiraterone resistance. In the present study, we found that AKR1C3 increases AR-V7 expression in resistant prostate cancer cells through enhancing protein stability via activation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway. AKR1C3 reprograms AR signaling in enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cells. In addition, bioinformatical analysis of indomethacin-treated resistant cells revealed that indomethacin significantly activates the unfolded protein response, p53, and apoptosis pathways, and suppresses cell-cycle, Myc, and AR/ARV7 pathways. Targeting AKR1C3 with indomethacin significantly decreases AR/AR-V7 protein expression in vitro and in vivo through activation of the ubiquitin-mediated proteasome pathway. Our results suggest that the AKR1C3/AR-V7 complex collaboratively confers resistance to AR-targeted therapies in advanced prostate cancer.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research