Aging of human short-wave cone pathways

Keizo Shinomori, John S Werner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

20 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The retinal image is sampled concurrently, and largely independently, by three physiologically and anatomically distinct pathways, each with separate ON and OFF subdivisions. The retinal circuitry giving rise to an ON pathway receiving input from the short-wave-sensitive (S) cones is well understood, but the S-cone OFF circuitry is more controversial. Here, we characterize the temporal properties of putative S-cone ON and OFF pathways in younger and older observers by measuring thresholds for stimuli that produce increases or decreases in S-cone stimulation, while the middle- and long-wave-sensitive cones are unmodulated. We characterize the data in terms of an impulse response function, the theoretical response to a flash of infinitely short duration, from which the response to any temporally varying stimulus may be predicted. Results show that the S-cone response to increments is faster than to decrements, but this difference is significantly greater for older individuals. The impulse response function amplitudes for increment and decrement responses are highly correlated across individuals, whereas the timing is not. This strongly suggests that the amplitude is controlled by neural circuitry that is common to S-cone ON and OFF responses (photoreceptors), whereas the timing is controlled by separate postreceptoral pathways. The slower response of the putative OFF pathway is ascribed to different retinal circuitry, possibly attributable to a sign-inverting amacrine cell not present in the ON pathway. It is significant that this pathway is affected selectively in the elderly by becoming slower, whereas the temporal properties of the S-cone ON response are stable across the life span of an individual.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)13422-13427
Number of pages6
JournalProceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Volume109
Issue number33
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 2012

Fingerprint

Radio Waves
Amacrine Cells

Keywords

  • Koniocellular pathway
  • Short-wave-sensitive cone pathways
  • Visual psychophysics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General

Cite this

Aging of human short-wave cone pathways. / Shinomori, Keizo; Werner, John S.

In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, Vol. 109, No. 33, 14.08.2012, p. 13422-13427.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{b306ae5f30264657864090b8e237e1a1,
title = "Aging of human short-wave cone pathways",
abstract = "The retinal image is sampled concurrently, and largely independently, by three physiologically and anatomically distinct pathways, each with separate ON and OFF subdivisions. The retinal circuitry giving rise to an ON pathway receiving input from the short-wave-sensitive (S) cones is well understood, but the S-cone OFF circuitry is more controversial. Here, we characterize the temporal properties of putative S-cone ON and OFF pathways in younger and older observers by measuring thresholds for stimuli that produce increases or decreases in S-cone stimulation, while the middle- and long-wave-sensitive cones are unmodulated. We characterize the data in terms of an impulse response function, the theoretical response to a flash of infinitely short duration, from which the response to any temporally varying stimulus may be predicted. Results show that the S-cone response to increments is faster than to decrements, but this difference is significantly greater for older individuals. The impulse response function amplitudes for increment and decrement responses are highly correlated across individuals, whereas the timing is not. This strongly suggests that the amplitude is controlled by neural circuitry that is common to S-cone ON and OFF responses (photoreceptors), whereas the timing is controlled by separate postreceptoral pathways. The slower response of the putative OFF pathway is ascribed to different retinal circuitry, possibly attributable to a sign-inverting amacrine cell not present in the ON pathway. It is significant that this pathway is affected selectively in the elderly by becoming slower, whereas the temporal properties of the S-cone ON response are stable across the life span of an individual.",
keywords = "Koniocellular pathway, Short-wave-sensitive cone pathways, Visual psychophysics",
author = "Keizo Shinomori and Werner, {John S}",
year = "2012",
month = "8",
day = "14",
doi = "10.1073/pnas.1119770109",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "109",
pages = "13422--13427",
journal = "Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America",
issn = "0027-8424",
number = "33",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Aging of human short-wave cone pathways

AU - Shinomori, Keizo

AU - Werner, John S

PY - 2012/8/14

Y1 - 2012/8/14

N2 - The retinal image is sampled concurrently, and largely independently, by three physiologically and anatomically distinct pathways, each with separate ON and OFF subdivisions. The retinal circuitry giving rise to an ON pathway receiving input from the short-wave-sensitive (S) cones is well understood, but the S-cone OFF circuitry is more controversial. Here, we characterize the temporal properties of putative S-cone ON and OFF pathways in younger and older observers by measuring thresholds for stimuli that produce increases or decreases in S-cone stimulation, while the middle- and long-wave-sensitive cones are unmodulated. We characterize the data in terms of an impulse response function, the theoretical response to a flash of infinitely short duration, from which the response to any temporally varying stimulus may be predicted. Results show that the S-cone response to increments is faster than to decrements, but this difference is significantly greater for older individuals. The impulse response function amplitudes for increment and decrement responses are highly correlated across individuals, whereas the timing is not. This strongly suggests that the amplitude is controlled by neural circuitry that is common to S-cone ON and OFF responses (photoreceptors), whereas the timing is controlled by separate postreceptoral pathways. The slower response of the putative OFF pathway is ascribed to different retinal circuitry, possibly attributable to a sign-inverting amacrine cell not present in the ON pathway. It is significant that this pathway is affected selectively in the elderly by becoming slower, whereas the temporal properties of the S-cone ON response are stable across the life span of an individual.

AB - The retinal image is sampled concurrently, and largely independently, by three physiologically and anatomically distinct pathways, each with separate ON and OFF subdivisions. The retinal circuitry giving rise to an ON pathway receiving input from the short-wave-sensitive (S) cones is well understood, but the S-cone OFF circuitry is more controversial. Here, we characterize the temporal properties of putative S-cone ON and OFF pathways in younger and older observers by measuring thresholds for stimuli that produce increases or decreases in S-cone stimulation, while the middle- and long-wave-sensitive cones are unmodulated. We characterize the data in terms of an impulse response function, the theoretical response to a flash of infinitely short duration, from which the response to any temporally varying stimulus may be predicted. Results show that the S-cone response to increments is faster than to decrements, but this difference is significantly greater for older individuals. The impulse response function amplitudes for increment and decrement responses are highly correlated across individuals, whereas the timing is not. This strongly suggests that the amplitude is controlled by neural circuitry that is common to S-cone ON and OFF responses (photoreceptors), whereas the timing is controlled by separate postreceptoral pathways. The slower response of the putative OFF pathway is ascribed to different retinal circuitry, possibly attributable to a sign-inverting amacrine cell not present in the ON pathway. It is significant that this pathway is affected selectively in the elderly by becoming slower, whereas the temporal properties of the S-cone ON response are stable across the life span of an individual.

KW - Koniocellular pathway

KW - Short-wave-sensitive cone pathways

KW - Visual psychophysics

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84865158787&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84865158787&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1073/pnas.1119770109

DO - 10.1073/pnas.1119770109

M3 - Article

C2 - 22847416

AN - SCOPUS:84865158787

VL - 109

SP - 13422

EP - 13427

JO - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

JF - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

SN - 0027-8424

IS - 33

ER -