Age-related differences in factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children

Julie C. Leonard, David M. Jaffe, Cody S. Olsen, Nathan Kuppermann

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

4 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Objectives The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) investigators previously identified risk factors associated with cervical spine injuries (CSIs) in children. Anatomic maturation and age-related variation in mechanisms of injury suggested the need to explore factors separately for younger versus older children. The purpose of this substudy was to investigate CSI risk factors in age subgroups within the PECARN study cohort. Methods This was an age-stratified case-control analysis of children younger than 16 years presenting to 17 PECARN hospitals following blunt trauma between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. Data were abstracted for children with CSIs and randomly selected CSI-free children. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CSI within three age groups: younger than 2, 2 to 7, and 8 to 15 years. Sensitivity and specificity for CSI were estimated for both the age-specific and original (altered mental status, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, torticollis, substantial torso injury, predisposing conditions, diving, and high-risk motor vehicle crash [MVC]) models. Results Among 540 children with CSIs, 27 were younger than 2 years, 140 were 2 to 7 years, and 373 were 8 to 15 years. Focal neurologic deficits and high-risk MVC were associated with CSIs in all age-specific models. Other age-specific factors included the following: younger than 2 years, none; 2 to 7 years, altered mental status, neck pain, torticollis; and 8 to 15 years, altered mental status, neck pain, diving. Age-specific models had comparable sensitivity to the original model among the older groups, but had lower sensitivity and higher specificity among the youngest children. Conclusions While this analysis supports the original PECARN model for CSI, there were subtle age variations in factors associated with CSIs in children that warrant future investigation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)441-446
Number of pages6
JournalAcademic Emergency Medicine
Volume22
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2015

Fingerprint

Spine
Wounds and Injuries
Emergency Medical Services
Neck Pain
Pediatrics
Torticollis
Diving
Motor Vehicles
Neurologic Manifestations
Research
Sensitivity and Specificity
Torso
Age Factors
Cohort Studies
Age Groups
Logistic Models
Research Personnel

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

Cite this

Age-related differences in factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children. / Leonard, Julie C.; Jaffe, David M.; Olsen, Cody S.; Kuppermann, Nathan.

In: Academic Emergency Medicine, Vol. 22, No. 4, 01.04.2015, p. 441-446.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Leonard, Julie C. ; Jaffe, David M. ; Olsen, Cody S. ; Kuppermann, Nathan. / Age-related differences in factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children. In: Academic Emergency Medicine. 2015 ; Vol. 22, No. 4. pp. 441-446.
@article{a59f339b07094ecdbe5cbe1c0e7fc036,
title = "Age-related differences in factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children",
abstract = "Objectives The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) investigators previously identified risk factors associated with cervical spine injuries (CSIs) in children. Anatomic maturation and age-related variation in mechanisms of injury suggested the need to explore factors separately for younger versus older children. The purpose of this substudy was to investigate CSI risk factors in age subgroups within the PECARN study cohort. Methods This was an age-stratified case-control analysis of children younger than 16 years presenting to 17 PECARN hospitals following blunt trauma between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. Data were abstracted for children with CSIs and randomly selected CSI-free children. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CSI within three age groups: younger than 2, 2 to 7, and 8 to 15 years. Sensitivity and specificity for CSI were estimated for both the age-specific and original (altered mental status, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, torticollis, substantial torso injury, predisposing conditions, diving, and high-risk motor vehicle crash [MVC]) models. Results Among 540 children with CSIs, 27 were younger than 2 years, 140 were 2 to 7 years, and 373 were 8 to 15 years. Focal neurologic deficits and high-risk MVC were associated with CSIs in all age-specific models. Other age-specific factors included the following: younger than 2 years, none; 2 to 7 years, altered mental status, neck pain, torticollis; and 8 to 15 years, altered mental status, neck pain, diving. Age-specific models had comparable sensitivity to the original model among the older groups, but had lower sensitivity and higher specificity among the youngest children. Conclusions While this analysis supports the original PECARN model for CSI, there were subtle age variations in factors associated with CSIs in children that warrant future investigation.",
author = "Leonard, {Julie C.} and Jaffe, {David M.} and Olsen, {Cody S.} and Nathan Kuppermann",
year = "2015",
month = "4",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1111/acem.12637",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "22",
pages = "441--446",
journal = "Academic Emergency Medicine",
issn = "1069-6563",
publisher = "Wiley-Blackwell",
number = "4",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Age-related differences in factors associated with cervical spine injuries in children

AU - Leonard, Julie C.

AU - Jaffe, David M.

AU - Olsen, Cody S.

AU - Kuppermann, Nathan

PY - 2015/4/1

Y1 - 2015/4/1

N2 - Objectives The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) investigators previously identified risk factors associated with cervical spine injuries (CSIs) in children. Anatomic maturation and age-related variation in mechanisms of injury suggested the need to explore factors separately for younger versus older children. The purpose of this substudy was to investigate CSI risk factors in age subgroups within the PECARN study cohort. Methods This was an age-stratified case-control analysis of children younger than 16 years presenting to 17 PECARN hospitals following blunt trauma between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. Data were abstracted for children with CSIs and randomly selected CSI-free children. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CSI within three age groups: younger than 2, 2 to 7, and 8 to 15 years. Sensitivity and specificity for CSI were estimated for both the age-specific and original (altered mental status, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, torticollis, substantial torso injury, predisposing conditions, diving, and high-risk motor vehicle crash [MVC]) models. Results Among 540 children with CSIs, 27 were younger than 2 years, 140 were 2 to 7 years, and 373 were 8 to 15 years. Focal neurologic deficits and high-risk MVC were associated with CSIs in all age-specific models. Other age-specific factors included the following: younger than 2 years, none; 2 to 7 years, altered mental status, neck pain, torticollis; and 8 to 15 years, altered mental status, neck pain, diving. Age-specific models had comparable sensitivity to the original model among the older groups, but had lower sensitivity and higher specificity among the youngest children. Conclusions While this analysis supports the original PECARN model for CSI, there were subtle age variations in factors associated with CSIs in children that warrant future investigation.

AB - Objectives The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) investigators previously identified risk factors associated with cervical spine injuries (CSIs) in children. Anatomic maturation and age-related variation in mechanisms of injury suggested the need to explore factors separately for younger versus older children. The purpose of this substudy was to investigate CSI risk factors in age subgroups within the PECARN study cohort. Methods This was an age-stratified case-control analysis of children younger than 16 years presenting to 17 PECARN hospitals following blunt trauma between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2004. Data were abstracted for children with CSIs and randomly selected CSI-free children. Age-stratified multivariable logistic regression was performed to identify factors associated with CSI within three age groups: younger than 2, 2 to 7, and 8 to 15 years. Sensitivity and specificity for CSI were estimated for both the age-specific and original (altered mental status, focal neurologic findings, neck pain, torticollis, substantial torso injury, predisposing conditions, diving, and high-risk motor vehicle crash [MVC]) models. Results Among 540 children with CSIs, 27 were younger than 2 years, 140 were 2 to 7 years, and 373 were 8 to 15 years. Focal neurologic deficits and high-risk MVC were associated with CSIs in all age-specific models. Other age-specific factors included the following: younger than 2 years, none; 2 to 7 years, altered mental status, neck pain, torticollis; and 8 to 15 years, altered mental status, neck pain, diving. Age-specific models had comparable sensitivity to the original model among the older groups, but had lower sensitivity and higher specificity among the youngest children. Conclusions While this analysis supports the original PECARN model for CSI, there were subtle age variations in factors associated with CSIs in children that warrant future investigation.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84926633330&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=84926633330&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1111/acem.12637

DO - 10.1111/acem.12637

M3 - Article

C2 - 25779934

AN - SCOPUS:84926633330

VL - 22

SP - 441

EP - 446

JO - Academic Emergency Medicine

JF - Academic Emergency Medicine

SN - 1069-6563

IS - 4

ER -