Aerogel synthesis of yttria-stabilized zirconia by a non-alkoxide sol-gel route

Christopher N. Chervin, Brady J. Clapsaddle, Hsiang Wei Chiu, Alexander E. Gash, Joe H. Satcher, Susan M. Kauzlarich

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121 Scopus citations


Homogeneous, nanocrystalline powders of yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) were prepared using a nonalkoxide sol-gel method. Monolithic gels, free of precipitation, were prepared by addition of propylene oxide to aqueous solutions of Zr 4+ and Y 3+ chlorides at room temperature. The gels were dried with supercritical CO 2(l), resulting in amorphous aerogels that crystallized into stabilized ZrO 2 following calcination at 500°C. The aerogels and resulting crystalline products were characterized using in situ temperature profile X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, thermal analysis, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nitrogen adsorption/desorption analysis, and elemental analysis by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy. TEM and N 2 adsorption/desorption analysis of an aerogel prepared by this method indicated a porous network structure with a high surface area (409 m 2/g). The crystallized YSZ maintained high surface area (159 m 2/g) upon formation of homogeneous, nanoparticles (∼10 nm). Ionic conductivity at 1000°C of sintered YSZ (1500°C, 3 h) was 0.13 ± 0.02 Ω -1 cm -1. Activation energies for the conduction processes from 1000 to 550°C and 550-400°C were 0.95 ± 0.09 and 1.12 ± 0.05 eV, respectively.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3345-3351
Number of pages7
JournalChemistry of Materials
Issue number13
StatePublished - Jun 28 2005

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Chemistry
  • Materials Science(all)


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