Adrenal function in wild and rehabilitated pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) and in seals with phocine herpesvirus-associated adrenal necrosis

F. M D Gulland, M. Haulena, Linda J Lowenstine, C. Munro, P. A. Graham, J. Bauman, J. Harvey

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations


Adrenal function in harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardii) was evaluated using adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) stimulation tests and fecal cortisol levels. The effect of ACTH administration on plasma cortisol and aldosterone levels in five free-living and 14 rehabilitated harbor seal pups was determined using enzyme immunoassay and radioimmunoassay, respectively. In free-living seals, injection of ACTH caused a significant increase in mean plasma cortisol but not of mean aldosterone levels 60 min postinjection. In these seals, mean initial plasma aldosterone was significantly higher than initial levels in rehabilitated seals, while initial cortisol levels were similar. Of the rehabilitated seals, eight died with adrenal cortical necrosis associated with herpesvirus inclusions, while six lived to be released. In the seals that were released, both mean initial cortisol levels and response to ACTH decreased through rehabilitation. In the seals that died, mean initial cortisol and response to ACTH increased through rehabilitation. The differences between initial cortisol levels in seals that lived and those that died were significant at weeks two and four of rehabilitation but not at the week of admission. There was considerable individual variation in initial plasma aldosterone levels and responses to ACTH, although initial aldosterone levels were significantly higher in rehabilitated seals that died than in seals that lived. Seals with adrenal necrosis associated with herpesvirus infection did not have decreased adrenal hormone responses to ACTH. Differences between initial hormone levels and responses to ACTH in different groups of seals may be associated with differing stress levels. Fecal cortisol assays were not a useful method of assessing adrenal function in these seals, as measured levels did not correlate with plasma cortisol levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)810-827
Number of pages18
JournalMarine Mammal Science
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1999


  • Adrenal
  • Adrenocorticotrophic hormone
  • Aldosterone
  • Cortisol
  • Harbor seal
  • Herpesvirus
  • Phoca vitulina richardii

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Aquatic Science


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