Adipose tissue triglyceride turnover, de novo lipogenesis, and cell proliferation in humans measured with 2H2O

A. Strawford, F. Antelo, M. Christiansen, M. K. Hellerstein

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

220 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

The turnover of adipose tissue components (lipids and cells) and the pathways of adipose lipid deposition have been difficult to measure in humans. We apply here a 2H2O long-term labeling technique for concurrent measurement of adipose-triglyceride (TG) turnover, cell (DNA) proliferation, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Healthy subjects drank 2H2O (70 ml/day) for 5-9 wk. Subcutaneous adipose tissue aspirates were taken (gluteal, thigh, and flank depots). Deuterium incorporation into TG glycerol (representing all-source TG synthesis), TG palmitate (representing DNL, by mass isotopomer distribution analysis), and DNA (representing cell proliferation) was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Subjects tolerated the protocol well, and body 2H 2O enrichments were stable. Mean TG-glycerol fractional synthesis was 0.12 (i.e., 12%) with a range of 0.03-0.32 after 5 wk and 0.20 (range 0.08-0.49) after 9 wk (TG half-life 200-270 days). Label decay measurements 5-8 mo after discontinuing 2H2O gave similar turnover estimates. Net lipolysis (TG turnover) was 50-60 g/day. DNL contribution to adipose-TG was 0.04 after 9 wk, representing ∼20% of newly deposited TG. Cell proliferation was 0.10-0.17 after 9 wk (half-life 240-425 days). In summary, long-term 2H2O administration to human subjects allows measurement of the dynamics of adipose tissue components. Turnover of all elements is slow, and DNL contributes ∼20% of new TG.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAmerican Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism
Volume286
Issue number4 49-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 2004

Fingerprint

Lipogenesis
Cell proliferation
Adipose Tissue
Triglycerides
Cell Proliferation
Tissue
Glycerol
Half-Life
Lipids
Palmitates
Deuterium
Lipolysis
Subcutaneous Fat
DNA
Cellular Structures
Thigh
Gas chromatography
Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
Labeling
Mass spectrometry

Keywords

  • Adipogenesis
  • Lipid kinetics
  • Lipolysis
  • Stable isotopes
  • Triglyceride synthesis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Endocrinology
  • Biochemistry

Cite this

Adipose tissue triglyceride turnover, de novo lipogenesis, and cell proliferation in humans measured with 2H2O. / Strawford, A.; Antelo, F.; Christiansen, M.; Hellerstein, M. K.

In: American Journal of Physiology - Endocrinology and Metabolism, Vol. 286, No. 4 49-4, 04.2004.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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abstract = "The turnover of adipose tissue components (lipids and cells) and the pathways of adipose lipid deposition have been difficult to measure in humans. We apply here a 2H2O long-term labeling technique for concurrent measurement of adipose-triglyceride (TG) turnover, cell (DNA) proliferation, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Healthy subjects drank 2H2O (70 ml/day) for 5-9 wk. Subcutaneous adipose tissue aspirates were taken (gluteal, thigh, and flank depots). Deuterium incorporation into TG glycerol (representing all-source TG synthesis), TG palmitate (representing DNL, by mass isotopomer distribution analysis), and DNA (representing cell proliferation) was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Subjects tolerated the protocol well, and body 2H 2O enrichments were stable. Mean TG-glycerol fractional synthesis was 0.12 (i.e., 12{\%}) with a range of 0.03-0.32 after 5 wk and 0.20 (range 0.08-0.49) after 9 wk (TG half-life 200-270 days). Label decay measurements 5-8 mo after discontinuing 2H2O gave similar turnover estimates. Net lipolysis (TG turnover) was 50-60 g/day. DNL contribution to adipose-TG was 0.04 after 9 wk, representing ∼20{\%} of newly deposited TG. Cell proliferation was 0.10-0.17 after 9 wk (half-life 240-425 days). In summary, long-term 2H2O administration to human subjects allows measurement of the dynamics of adipose tissue components. Turnover of all elements is slow, and DNL contributes ∼20{\%} of new TG.",
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AB - The turnover of adipose tissue components (lipids and cells) and the pathways of adipose lipid deposition have been difficult to measure in humans. We apply here a 2H2O long-term labeling technique for concurrent measurement of adipose-triglyceride (TG) turnover, cell (DNA) proliferation, and de novo lipogenesis (DNL). Healthy subjects drank 2H2O (70 ml/day) for 5-9 wk. Subcutaneous adipose tissue aspirates were taken (gluteal, thigh, and flank depots). Deuterium incorporation into TG glycerol (representing all-source TG synthesis), TG palmitate (representing DNL, by mass isotopomer distribution analysis), and DNA (representing cell proliferation) was measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Subjects tolerated the protocol well, and body 2H 2O enrichments were stable. Mean TG-glycerol fractional synthesis was 0.12 (i.e., 12%) with a range of 0.03-0.32 after 5 wk and 0.20 (range 0.08-0.49) after 9 wk (TG half-life 200-270 days). Label decay measurements 5-8 mo after discontinuing 2H2O gave similar turnover estimates. Net lipolysis (TG turnover) was 50-60 g/day. DNL contribution to adipose-TG was 0.04 after 9 wk, representing ∼20% of newly deposited TG. Cell proliferation was 0.10-0.17 after 9 wk (half-life 240-425 days). In summary, long-term 2H2O administration to human subjects allows measurement of the dynamics of adipose tissue components. Turnover of all elements is slow, and DNL contributes ∼20% of new TG.

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