Additional prophylactic antibiotics do not decrease surgical site infection rates in pediatric patients with appendicitis and cholecystitis

Sarah C. Stokes, Christina M. Theodorou, Erin G. Brown

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Administration of antibiotics within an hour of incision is a common quality metric for reduction of surgical site infections (SSI). Many pediatric patients who undergo surgery for an acute intraabdominal infection are already receiving treatment antibiotics. For these patients, we hypothesized that additional prophylactic antibiotic coverage would not decrease rates of SSI. Methods: Single institution retrospective review of patients <18 years old undergoing appendectomy or cholecystectomy 7/2014–7/2019. Patients were categorized based on administration of an additional prophylactic antibiotic to cover gram positive bacteria within an hour of incision. The primary outcome was SSI. Secondary outcomes were Clostridium difficile colitis, intraoperative allergic reaction and readmission within 30 days due to infection. Results: Of 363 patients, 261 received pre-operative prophylactic antibiotics and 92 received treatment antibiotics only. There was no difference in rates of organ space SSI (4.3% no prophylaxis vs 4.4% prophylaxis, p = 0.97) or superficial SSI (1.1% no prophylaxis vs. 0.7% prophylaxis, p>0.999). One patient who received prophylactic antibiotics was readmitted on post-operative day 29 with C. difficile colitis. There was no difference in rates of intraoperative allergic reaction or readmission. Conclusion: In pediatric patients receiving treatment antibiotics for acute intraabdominal infection, additional prophylactic antibiotics may not reduce SSIs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalJournal of pediatric surgery
DOIs
StateAccepted/In press - 2020

Keywords

  • Antibiotic stewardship
  • Antibiotics
  • Appendicitis
  • Cholecystitis
  • Pre-incision prophylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health

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