Antiphospholipid (PL) syndrome (APS) is a multiorgan disease and as such, albeit in rare cases, its manifestations can be found in the eye, ear-nose-throat district, lung, gastrointestinal system, and endocrine glands. In these cases, particularly when they represent the first manifestation, the diagnosis can be challenging. Moreover, due to the frequent association of APS and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), it is often difficult to establish if a clinic manifestation is primarily related to APS, SLE, or both. In the present chapter we will review the available reports, mostly represented by single cases or small series, of these additional less obvious organs involved in APS (Fig. 13.1).
|Original language||English (US)|
|Title of host publication||Antiphospholipid Antibody Syndrome: From Bench to Bedside|
|Publisher||Springer International Publishing|
|Number of pages||6|
|ISBN (Print)||9783319110448, 9783319110431|
|State||Published - Jan 1 2015|
ASJC Scopus subject areas