Adaptations of Breast Imaging Centers to the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey of California and Texas

James S. Chalfant, Ethan O. Cohen, Jessica W.T. Leung, Sarah M. Pittman, Pranay D. Kothari, John R. Downey, Rita E. Sohlich, Alice Chong, Lars J. Grimm, Anne C. Hoyt, Haydee Ojeda-Fournier, Bonnie N. Joe, Long Trinh, Eric L. Rosen, Stephen A. Feig, Shadi Aminololama-Shakeri, Debra M. Ikeda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Objective: To determine the early impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on breast imaging centers in California and Texas and compare regional differences. Methods: An 11-item survey was emailed to American College of Radiology accredited breast imaging facilities in California and Texas in August 2020. A question subset addressed March-April government restrictions on elective services ("during the shutdown"and "after reopening"). Comparisons were made between states with chi-square and Fisher's tests, and timeframes with McNemar's and paired t-Tests. Results: There were 54 respondents (54/240, 23%, 26 California, 28 Texas). Imaging volumes fell during the shutdown and remained below pre-pandemic levels after reopening, with reduction in screening greatest (ultrasound 12% of baseline, mammography 13%, MRI 23%), followed by diagnostic MRI (43%), procedures (44%), and diagnostics (45%). California reported higher volumes during the shutdown (procedures, MRI) and after reopening (diagnostics, procedures, MRI) versus Texas (P=0.001-0.02). Most screened patients (52/54, 96% symptoms and 42/54, 78% temperatures), and 100% (53/53) modified check-in and check-out. Reading rooms or physician work were altered for social distancing (31/54, 57%). Physician mask (45/48, 94%), gown (15/48, 31%), eyewear (22/48, 46%), and face shield (22/48, 46%) use during procedures increased after reopening versus pre-pandemic (P<0.001-0.03). Physician (47/54, 87%) and staff (45/53, 85%) financial impacts were common, but none reported terminations. Conclusion: Breast imaging volumes during the early pandemic fell more severely in Texas than in California. Safety measures and financial impacts on physicians and staff were similar in both states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)343-353
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Breast Imaging
Issue number3
StatePublished - May 1 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • breast imaging
  • COVID-19
  • financial impact
  • safety measures

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging


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