Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: Establishment of reference intervals

Meera C Heller, Jennifer L. Johns

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Acute inflammatory processes can trigger increased production of acute phase proteins (APPs) that can be useful biomarkers of inflammation. APPs are diverse and include proteins involved in coagulation, opsonization, iron regulation, and limitation of tissue injury. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein have been proposed as useful APPs in goats. APPs can differ markedly by species, therefore species-specific reference intervals and studies are necessary. The objective of this study was to determine species-specific reference intervals for 4 APPs in goats. Haptoglobin, serum amyloid A, lipopolysaccharide binding protein, and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein were measured in in 54 clinically normal adult goats. APPs were measured using goat-specific commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Results were analyzed by 1-way analysis of variance to compare sexes and breeding status. Reference Value Advisor was used to calculate reference limits according to the IFCC-CLSI guidelines. Only 1 APP was found to vary in healthy animals; serum haptoglobin was increased in lactating animals and decreased in pregnant does in their second trimester when compared with open, nonlactating does. No sex-based differences were seen for any of the APPs measured. We report normal reference intervals for 4 serum APPs that may be useful as disease markers. Haptoglobin should be interpreted with caution in animals with unknown pregnancy status. Further studies are needed to determine whether these APPs are useful biomarkers in goat disease states.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)177-181
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 19 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • Acute phase protein
  • alpha-1 acid glycoprotein
  • caprine
  • goats
  • haptoglobin
  • lipopolysaccharide binding protein
  • serum amyloid A

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)
  • Medicine(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Acute phase proteins in healthy goats: Establishment of reference intervals'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this