Fluoroscopic procedures, in general, result in much higher exposures to patients than do most types of radiographic procedures [National Council on Radiation Protection, Report 100, p. 31 (1989)]. In spite of this, fluoroscopic exposure rates can vary widely between systems, and often for no apparent reason. The charge of AAPM Task Group No. 11 was to evaluate fluoroscopic exposure rates at the entrant surface of the x-ray image intensifier, and to disseminate this information so that medical physicists could compare their own exposure rate measurements with typical values. The measurement protocol was defined for various system configurations. Sheets of copper were used to attenuate the x-ray beam, and the input exposure rate at the image intensifier (at the input mode closest to 23-cm diameter) in the absence of a scattering medium was determined. With 2 mm of copper as x-ray beam filtration, the median fluoroscopic exposure rate at the image intensifier was found to be 16.5 nC/kg/s (64.0 μR/s), with an average kV of 77 and mA of 2.0 (n = 62).
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