A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus in dairy cattle in the central valley of California

I. J. Uhaa, H. P. Riemann, Mark Thurmond, C. E. Franti

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in California dairy cattle was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distribution by age and season of BTV group-reactive antibodies and to look for possible associations between the presence of antibodies and cattle age or breed and farm. Between December 1985 and March 1987, a sample of cattle was tested at approximately two-month intervals for BTV group-reactive antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data taken during the month of December 1986 were used to evaluate possible associations between a positive antibody test and certain intrinsic (age, breed) and extrinsic (farm) factors. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the χ-square test for associations and multiple logistic regression, respectively, were carried out for possible associations between positive antibody tests to BTV and each factor of interest. The strengths of the associations were determined using estimates of the odds ratio. Of the 3774 serum samples tested, 238 (6.3%) were from calves, 1045 (27.6%) were from heifers and 2492 (66.0%) were from cows. Seroprevalence varied from nil in calves on two occasions to over 90% on several occasions in cows. Cows consistently had higher prevalence rates than heifers or calves across all test dates (p<0.05). The seroprevalence of BTV group-reactive antibodies also showed a seasonal fluctuation, with the highest rates occurring during the warmer months of the year. These highest prevalence rates coincided with heavy activity of the known vector of BTV, Culicoides spp. Breed and farm effects were not statistically significant (p>0.05). With the exception of one farm, all cattle were of the Holstein breed, which reduced confidence in assessing any breed effect in this study. Relative estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of BTV ELISA were 87% and 100% respectively, compared to the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The observations support previous findings of seasonal distribution of BTV antibodies and suggest an age relationship, whereby older cattle are more likely to be positive to BTV group-reactive antibodies than younger cattle.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-112
Number of pages14
JournalVeterinary Research Communications
Volume14
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 1990
Externally publishedYes

Fingerprint

Bluetongue virus
Central Valley of California
Seroepidemiologic Studies
serological surveys
dairy cattle
antibodies
Antibodies
cattle
breeds
calves
cows
farms
heifers
Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
testing
enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
immunodiffusion tests
Immunodiffusion
Age Distribution
Virus Diseases

Keywords

  • bluetongue
  • California
  • cattle
  • epidemiology
  • immunology
  • serum
  • survey
  • virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus in dairy cattle in the central valley of California. / Uhaa, I. J.; Riemann, H. P.; Thurmond, Mark; Franti, C. E.

In: Veterinary Research Communications, Vol. 14, No. 2, 01.03.1990, p. 99-112.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

@article{eaeb3d568cc6453494cd4336964d8933,
title = "A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus in dairy cattle in the central valley of California",
abstract = "A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in California dairy cattle was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distribution by age and season of BTV group-reactive antibodies and to look for possible associations between the presence of antibodies and cattle age or breed and farm. Between December 1985 and March 1987, a sample of cattle was tested at approximately two-month intervals for BTV group-reactive antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data taken during the month of December 1986 were used to evaluate possible associations between a positive antibody test and certain intrinsic (age, breed) and extrinsic (farm) factors. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the χ-square test for associations and multiple logistic regression, respectively, were carried out for possible associations between positive antibody tests to BTV and each factor of interest. The strengths of the associations were determined using estimates of the odds ratio. Of the 3774 serum samples tested, 238 (6.3{\%}) were from calves, 1045 (27.6{\%}) were from heifers and 2492 (66.0{\%}) were from cows. Seroprevalence varied from nil in calves on two occasions to over 90{\%} on several occasions in cows. Cows consistently had higher prevalence rates than heifers or calves across all test dates (p<0.05). The seroprevalence of BTV group-reactive antibodies also showed a seasonal fluctuation, with the highest rates occurring during the warmer months of the year. These highest prevalence rates coincided with heavy activity of the known vector of BTV, Culicoides spp. Breed and farm effects were not statistically significant (p>0.05). With the exception of one farm, all cattle were of the Holstein breed, which reduced confidence in assessing any breed effect in this study. Relative estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of BTV ELISA were 87{\%} and 100{\%} respectively, compared to the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The observations support previous findings of seasonal distribution of BTV antibodies and suggest an age relationship, whereby older cattle are more likely to be positive to BTV group-reactive antibodies than younger cattle.",
keywords = "bluetongue, California, cattle, epidemiology, immunology, serum, survey, virus",
author = "Uhaa, {I. J.} and Riemann, {H. P.} and Mark Thurmond and Franti, {C. E.}",
year = "1990",
month = "3",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1007/BF00346550",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "14",
pages = "99--112",
journal = "Veterinary Research Communications",
issn = "0165-7380",
publisher = "Springer Netherlands",
number = "2",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus in dairy cattle in the central valley of California

AU - Uhaa, I. J.

AU - Riemann, H. P.

AU - Thurmond, Mark

AU - Franti, C. E.

PY - 1990/3/1

Y1 - 1990/3/1

N2 - A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in California dairy cattle was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distribution by age and season of BTV group-reactive antibodies and to look for possible associations between the presence of antibodies and cattle age or breed and farm. Between December 1985 and March 1987, a sample of cattle was tested at approximately two-month intervals for BTV group-reactive antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data taken during the month of December 1986 were used to evaluate possible associations between a positive antibody test and certain intrinsic (age, breed) and extrinsic (farm) factors. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the χ-square test for associations and multiple logistic regression, respectively, were carried out for possible associations between positive antibody tests to BTV and each factor of interest. The strengths of the associations were determined using estimates of the odds ratio. Of the 3774 serum samples tested, 238 (6.3%) were from calves, 1045 (27.6%) were from heifers and 2492 (66.0%) were from cows. Seroprevalence varied from nil in calves on two occasions to over 90% on several occasions in cows. Cows consistently had higher prevalence rates than heifers or calves across all test dates (p<0.05). The seroprevalence of BTV group-reactive antibodies also showed a seasonal fluctuation, with the highest rates occurring during the warmer months of the year. These highest prevalence rates coincided with heavy activity of the known vector of BTV, Culicoides spp. Breed and farm effects were not statistically significant (p>0.05). With the exception of one farm, all cattle were of the Holstein breed, which reduced confidence in assessing any breed effect in this study. Relative estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of BTV ELISA were 87% and 100% respectively, compared to the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The observations support previous findings of seasonal distribution of BTV antibodies and suggest an age relationship, whereby older cattle are more likely to be positive to BTV group-reactive antibodies than younger cattle.

AB - A seroepidemiological study on bluetongue virus (BTV) infection in California dairy cattle was conducted to estimate the prevalence and distribution by age and season of BTV group-reactive antibodies and to look for possible associations between the presence of antibodies and cattle age or breed and farm. Between December 1985 and March 1987, a sample of cattle was tested at approximately two-month intervals for BTV group-reactive antibodies using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data taken during the month of December 1986 were used to evaluate possible associations between a positive antibody test and certain intrinsic (age, breed) and extrinsic (farm) factors. Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses using the χ-square test for associations and multiple logistic regression, respectively, were carried out for possible associations between positive antibody tests to BTV and each factor of interest. The strengths of the associations were determined using estimates of the odds ratio. Of the 3774 serum samples tested, 238 (6.3%) were from calves, 1045 (27.6%) were from heifers and 2492 (66.0%) were from cows. Seroprevalence varied from nil in calves on two occasions to over 90% on several occasions in cows. Cows consistently had higher prevalence rates than heifers or calves across all test dates (p<0.05). The seroprevalence of BTV group-reactive antibodies also showed a seasonal fluctuation, with the highest rates occurring during the warmer months of the year. These highest prevalence rates coincided with heavy activity of the known vector of BTV, Culicoides spp. Breed and farm effects were not statistically significant (p>0.05). With the exception of one farm, all cattle were of the Holstein breed, which reduced confidence in assessing any breed effect in this study. Relative estimates of the sensitivity and specificity of BTV ELISA were 87% and 100% respectively, compared to the standard agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test. The observations support previous findings of seasonal distribution of BTV antibodies and suggest an age relationship, whereby older cattle are more likely to be positive to BTV group-reactive antibodies than younger cattle.

KW - bluetongue

KW - California

KW - cattle

KW - epidemiology

KW - immunology

KW - serum

KW - survey

KW - virus

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0025142008&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0025142008&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1007/BF00346550

DO - 10.1007/BF00346550

M3 - Article

VL - 14

SP - 99

EP - 112

JO - Veterinary Research Communications

JF - Veterinary Research Communications

SN - 0165-7380

IS - 2

ER -