A Sensitive Class Specific Immunoassay for the Detection of Pyrethroid Metabolites in Human Urine

Guomin Shan, Huazhang Huang, Donald W. Stoutamire, Shirley J. Gee, Gabriele Leng, Bruce D. Hammock

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

74 Scopus citations


The pyrethroids are one of the most heavily used insecticide classes in the world. It is important to develop sensitive and rapid analytical techniques for environmental monitoring and assessment of human exposure to these compounds. Because major pyrethroids contain a phenoxybenzyl group and phenoxybenzoic acid (PBA) is a common metabolite form or intermediate, PBA might be used as a biomarker of human exposure to pyrethroids. A sensitive and selective immunoassay for the common pyrethroid metabolite PBA was developed. Rabbits were immunized with 3-[4-(3-carboxyphenoxy)phenoxy] N-thyroglobulin ethylamine. All sera were screened against numerous coating antigens. The assay with the least interference and the best sensitivity was optimized and characterized. The average IC50 for free PBA was 1.65 ng/mL. No cross-reactivity was measured to parent pyrethroids and other metabolites. Urine matrix effects can be eliminated by simple dilution. Results from urine samples from exposed workers suggest that this PBA immunoassay might be suitable as a monitoring tool for human exposure to pyrethroids.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)218-225
Number of pages8
JournalChemical Research in Toxicology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Drug Discovery
  • Organic Chemistry
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Toxicology
  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis


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