Transmissible viral proventriculitis (TVP) is a disease of chickens, mostly in broilers of 2-8 wk of age. Chicken proventricular necrosis virus (CPNV), a birnavirus, is the etiologic agent. Characteristic gross lesions are enlargement, atony, and pallor of the proventriculus. Cases diagnosed in California between 2000 and 2018 (n = 477), originating from 93 different farms representing all major companies in the region, were analyzed. Frequency of cases varied widely between years, with no recognizable seasonality. The flocks were between 6 and 61 days of age; the average age was 34.0 days, and the median age was 35 days. In 166 cases, between 6.3% and 100% of the submitted birds had gross lesions in the proventriculus. The most common findings were enlarged or dilated proventriculi, thickened walls, and pale or mottled serosal appearance. Histopathologically, inflammation of the glands was the most frequent finding. Other lesions included necrosis, hyperplasia, or both conditions of the glandular epithelium; dilated glands; and occasionally fibrin deposition, fibrosis, and hemorrhages. Twenty-three proventriculi from six cases were tested by immunohistochemistry for the presence of CPNV antigen; 21 stained positive. In 209 cases, birds also had lesions in the bursa fabricii attributed to infectious bursal disease, but with no significant difference in the mean percentage of birds with gross lesions in the proventriculus between cases with or without lesions in the bursa fabricii. The results show that TVP is a common disease of broiler flocks in California and confirms that CPNV is the likely causative agent.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Food Animals
- Animal Science and Zoology
- Immunology and Microbiology(all)