A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection

Melissa A. Miller, Patricia A Conrad, Michael Harris, Brian Hatfield, Gregg Langlois, David A. Jessup, Spencer L. Magargal, Andrea E. Packham, Sharon Toy-Choutka, Ann C. Melli, Michael A. Murray, Frances M. Gulland, Michael E. Grigg

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

40 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

During April 2004, 40 sick and dead southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were recovered over 18 km of coastline near Morro Bay, California. This event represented the single largest monthly spike in mortality ever recorded during 30 years of southern sea otter stranding data collection. Because of the point-source nature of the event and clinical signs consistent with severe, acute neurological disease, exposure to a chemical or marine toxin was initially considered. However, detailed postmortem examinations revealed lesions consistent with an infectious etiology, and further investigation confirmed the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona as the underlying cause. Tissues from 94% of examined otters were PCR-positive for S. neurona, based on DNA amplification and sequencing at the ITS-1 locus, and 100% of tested animals (n= 14) had elevated IgM and IgG titers to S. neurona. Evidence to support the point-source character of this event include the striking spatial and temporal clustering of cases and detection of high concentrations of anti- S. neurona IgM in serum of stranded animals. Concurrent exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid may have enhanced susceptibility of affected otters to S. neurona and exacerbated the neurological signs exhibited by stranded animals. Other factors that may have contributed to the severity of this epizootic include a large rainstorm that preceded the event and an abundance of razor clams near local beaches, attracting numerous otters close to shore within the affected area. This is the first report of a localized epizootic in marine wildlife caused by apicomplexan protozoa.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)183-194
Number of pages12
JournalVeterinary Parasitology
Volume172
Issue number3-4
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 2010

Fingerprint

Otters
Sarcocystis
Sarcocystis neurona
wildlife
Mortality
Infection
infection
Protozoa
Veneroida
marine toxins
Immunoglobulin M
domoic acid
Marine Toxins
animals
lesions (animal)
Bivalvia
beaches
Acute Disease
etiology
necropsy

Keywords

  • 18S rDNA
  • Enhydra lutris
  • Epizootic
  • ITS-1
  • Sarcocystis neurona
  • Sea otter

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Parasitology
  • veterinary(all)

Cite this

A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife : Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. / Miller, Melissa A.; Conrad, Patricia A; Harris, Michael; Hatfield, Brian; Langlois, Gregg; Jessup, David A.; Magargal, Spencer L.; Packham, Andrea E.; Toy-Choutka, Sharon; Melli, Ann C.; Murray, Michael A.; Gulland, Frances M.; Grigg, Michael E.

In: Veterinary Parasitology, Vol. 172, No. 3-4, 09.2010, p. 183-194.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Miller, MA, Conrad, PA, Harris, M, Hatfield, B, Langlois, G, Jessup, DA, Magargal, SL, Packham, AE, Toy-Choutka, S, Melli, AC, Murray, MA, Gulland, FM & Grigg, ME 2010, 'A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife: Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection', Veterinary Parasitology, vol. 172, no. 3-4, pp. 183-194. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2010.05.019
Miller, Melissa A. ; Conrad, Patricia A ; Harris, Michael ; Hatfield, Brian ; Langlois, Gregg ; Jessup, David A. ; Magargal, Spencer L. ; Packham, Andrea E. ; Toy-Choutka, Sharon ; Melli, Ann C. ; Murray, Michael A. ; Gulland, Frances M. ; Grigg, Michael E. / A protozoal-associated epizootic impacting marine wildlife : Mass-mortality of southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) due to Sarcocystis neurona infection. In: Veterinary Parasitology. 2010 ; Vol. 172, No. 3-4. pp. 183-194.
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abstract = "During April 2004, 40 sick and dead southern sea otters (Enhydra lutris nereis) were recovered over 18 km of coastline near Morro Bay, California. This event represented the single largest monthly spike in mortality ever recorded during 30 years of southern sea otter stranding data collection. Because of the point-source nature of the event and clinical signs consistent with severe, acute neurological disease, exposure to a chemical or marine toxin was initially considered. However, detailed postmortem examinations revealed lesions consistent with an infectious etiology, and further investigation confirmed the protozoan parasite Sarcocystis neurona as the underlying cause. Tissues from 94{\%} of examined otters were PCR-positive for S. neurona, based on DNA amplification and sequencing at the ITS-1 locus, and 100{\%} of tested animals (n= 14) had elevated IgM and IgG titers to S. neurona. Evidence to support the point-source character of this event include the striking spatial and temporal clustering of cases and detection of high concentrations of anti- S. neurona IgM in serum of stranded animals. Concurrent exposure to the marine biotoxin domoic acid may have enhanced susceptibility of affected otters to S. neurona and exacerbated the neurological signs exhibited by stranded animals. Other factors that may have contributed to the severity of this epizootic include a large rainstorm that preceded the event and an abundance of razor clams near local beaches, attracting numerous otters close to shore within the affected area. This is the first report of a localized epizootic in marine wildlife caused by apicomplexan protozoa.",
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