A prospective study of simplified omeprazole suspension for the prophylaxis of stress-related mucosal damage

Jeffrey O. Phillips, Michael H. Metzler, Tina L Palmieri, Roger E. Huckfeldt, Nicola G. Dahl

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

116 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: To determine the efficacy, safety, and cost of simplified omeprazole suspension in mechanically ventilated critically ill patients who have at least one additional risk factor for stress-related mucosal damage. Design: Prospective, open-label study. Setting: Surgical intensive care and burn unit at a university tertiary care center. Patients: Seventy-five adult, mechanically ventilated patients with at least one additional risk factor for stress-related mucosal damage. Interventions: Patients received 20 mL of simplified omeprazole suspension (containing 40 mg of omeprazole) initially, followed by a second 20-mL dose 6 to 8 hrs later, then 10 mL (20 mg) daily. Simplified omeprazole suspension was administered through a nasogastric tube, followed by 5 to 10 mL of tap water. The nasogastric tube was clamped for 1 to 2 hrs after each administration. Measurements and Main Results: The primary outcome measure was clinically significant gastrointestinal bleeding determined by endoscopic evaluation, nasogastric aspirate examination, or heme-positive coffee ground material that did not clear with lavage, which was associated with at least a 5% decrease in hematocrit. Secondary efficacy measures were gastric pH measured 4 hrs after omeprazole was first administered, mean gastric pH after omeprazole was started, and the lowest gastric pH during omeprazole therapy. Safety-related outcomes included the occurrence rate of adverse events and pneumonia. No patient experienced clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding after receiving omeprazole suspension. The 4-hr postomeprazole mean gastric pH was 7.1, the mean gastric pH after starting omeprazole was 6.8, and the mean lowest pH after starting omeprazole was 5.6. The occurrence rate of pneumonia was 12%. No patient in this high-risk population experienced an adverse event or a drug interaction that was attributable to omeprazole. Conclusions: Simplified omeprazole suspension prevented clinically significant upper gastrointestinal bleeding and maintained gastric pH of >5.5 in mechanically ventilated critical care patients without producing toxicity.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1793-1800
Number of pages8
JournalCritical Care Medicine
Volume24
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 1996
Externally publishedYes

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Keywords

  • gastric mucosa
  • gastrointestinal hemorrhage
  • intensive care units
  • mechanical ventilation
  • omeprazole
  • pH
  • prophylaxis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine

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