A preliminary investigation of the relationship between water quality and Anopheles gambiae larval habitats in western Cameroon

Michelle R. Sanford, Steven Ramsay, Anthony J. Cornel, Clare D. Marsden, Laura C. Norris, Salomon Patchoke, Etienne Fondjo, Gregory C Lanzaro, Yoosook Lee

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations


Background: Water quality and anopheline habitat have received increasing attention due to the possibility that challenges during larval life may translate into adult susceptibility to malaria parasite infection and/or insecticide resistance. Methods. A preliminary study of Anopheles gambiae s.s. larval habitats in the north-west and south-west regions of Cameroon was conducted in order to detect associations between An. gambiae s.s. molecular form and 2La inversion distributions with basic water quality parameters. Water quality was measured by temperature, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS) at seven sites in Cameroon and one site in Selinkenyi, Mali. Results: Principal components and correlation analyses indicated a complex relationship between 2La polymorphism, temperature, conductivity and TDS. Cooler water sites at more inland locations yielded more S form larvae with higher 2La inversion polymorphism while warmer water sites yielded more M form larvae with rare observations of the 2La inversion. Discussion. More detailed studies that take into account the population genetics but also multiple life stages, environmental data relative to these life stages and interactions with both humans and the malaria parasite may help us to understand more about how and why this successful mosquito is able to adapt and diverge, and how it can be successfully managed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number225
JournalMalaria Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2013



  • Anopheles Gambiae s.s
  • Conductivity
  • Molecular Form
  • Total Dissolved Solids

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Parasitology

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