A Piscirickettsia salmonis-like bacterium associated with mortality of white seabass Atractoscion nobilis

M. F. Chen, S. Yun, G. D. Marty, T. S. McDowell, M. L. House, J. A. Appersen, T. A. Guenther, K. D. Arkush, Ronald Hedrick

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Abstract

Mortality among hatchery-reared juvenile white seabass Atractoscion nobilis in southern California, USA, was associated with infections by a Piscirickettsia salmonis-like organism (WSPSLO). Infected fish had no consistent external signs other than pale gills, lethargy and impaired swimming behavior. Internally, the kidney and spleen were enlarged, and some fish had livers with multiple pale foci. Smears from infected kidney, liver, and spleen stained with Wright-Giemsa had intracytoplasmic coccoid organisms, often in pairs, that ranged in size from 0.5 to 1.0 μm. Microscopic lesions included multifocal hepatic, renal, and splenic necrosis, and intralesional macrophages often contained the WSPSLO. The bacterium was isolated from infected fish on cell lines of salmonid (CHSE-214) and white seabass (WSBK) origin. The WSPSLO induced plaque formation and destroyed the cell monolayers within 10 to 14 d incubation at temperatures of 15 and 20°C. The bacterium retained infectivity for cell lines up to 14 d at 4 and 13°C, up to 7 d at 20°C, but it was inactivated at 37 and 56°C within 24 and 1 h, respectively. Freezing at -20°C reduced infectivity by 100-fold. Dehydration and resuspension in distilled water completely inactivated the bacterium. In contrast, the WSPSLO retained nearly all of its infectivity for CHSE-214 cells following a 72 h period in seawater at 20°C. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies made to the WSPSLO reacted specifically in indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) with the bacterium in cell cultures and smears from infected fish tissues. Tissue smears from infected salmon or CHSE-214 cells with P. salmonis reacted weakly with the anti-WSPSLO serum. Conversely, polyclonal anti-P. salmonis serum produced a weakly positive reaction with the WSPSLO from infected CHSE-214 cells. The WSPSLO as propagated in CHSE-214 cells was highly virulent for juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, inducing 80% mortality within 10 d of intraperitoneal injection of 102.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses per fish. We conclude that the bacterium from white seabass possesses antigenic differences from P. salmonis yet possesses virulence for salmon equal to known strains of P. salmonis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-126
Number of pages10
JournalDiseases of Aquatic Organisms
Volume43
Issue number2
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 14 2000

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Piscirickettsia salmonis
mortality
bacterium
bacteria
organisms
infectivity
infection
fish
antibody
pathogenicity
Oncorhynchus kisutch
serum
kidneys
liver
salmon
cells
Atractoscion nobilis
organism
swimming behavior
spleen

Keywords

  • Piscirickettsia salmonis
  • Rickettsia-like
  • Seabass

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics
  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

A Piscirickettsia salmonis-like bacterium associated with mortality of white seabass Atractoscion nobilis. / Chen, M. F.; Yun, S.; Marty, G. D.; McDowell, T. S.; House, M. L.; Appersen, J. A.; Guenther, T. A.; Arkush, K. D.; Hedrick, Ronald.

In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, Vol. 43, No. 2, 14.11.2000, p. 117-126.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Chen, MF, Yun, S, Marty, GD, McDowell, TS, House, ML, Appersen, JA, Guenther, TA, Arkush, KD & Hedrick, R 2000, 'A Piscirickettsia salmonis-like bacterium associated with mortality of white seabass Atractoscion nobilis', Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 117-126. https://doi.org/10.3354/dao043117
Chen, M. F. ; Yun, S. ; Marty, G. D. ; McDowell, T. S. ; House, M. L. ; Appersen, J. A. ; Guenther, T. A. ; Arkush, K. D. ; Hedrick, Ronald. / A Piscirickettsia salmonis-like bacterium associated with mortality of white seabass Atractoscion nobilis. In: Diseases of Aquatic Organisms. 2000 ; Vol. 43, No. 2. pp. 117-126.
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AU - Yun, S.

AU - Marty, G. D.

AU - McDowell, T. S.

AU - House, M. L.

AU - Appersen, J. A.

AU - Guenther, T. A.

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AU - Hedrick, Ronald

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N2 - Mortality among hatchery-reared juvenile white seabass Atractoscion nobilis in southern California, USA, was associated with infections by a Piscirickettsia salmonis-like organism (WSPSLO). Infected fish had no consistent external signs other than pale gills, lethargy and impaired swimming behavior. Internally, the kidney and spleen were enlarged, and some fish had livers with multiple pale foci. Smears from infected kidney, liver, and spleen stained with Wright-Giemsa had intracytoplasmic coccoid organisms, often in pairs, that ranged in size from 0.5 to 1.0 μm. Microscopic lesions included multifocal hepatic, renal, and splenic necrosis, and intralesional macrophages often contained the WSPSLO. The bacterium was isolated from infected fish on cell lines of salmonid (CHSE-214) and white seabass (WSBK) origin. The WSPSLO induced plaque formation and destroyed the cell monolayers within 10 to 14 d incubation at temperatures of 15 and 20°C. The bacterium retained infectivity for cell lines up to 14 d at 4 and 13°C, up to 7 d at 20°C, but it was inactivated at 37 and 56°C within 24 and 1 h, respectively. Freezing at -20°C reduced infectivity by 100-fold. Dehydration and resuspension in distilled water completely inactivated the bacterium. In contrast, the WSPSLO retained nearly all of its infectivity for CHSE-214 cells following a 72 h period in seawater at 20°C. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies made to the WSPSLO reacted specifically in indirect fluorescent antibody tests (IFAT) with the bacterium in cell cultures and smears from infected fish tissues. Tissue smears from infected salmon or CHSE-214 cells with P. salmonis reacted weakly with the anti-WSPSLO serum. Conversely, polyclonal anti-P. salmonis serum produced a weakly positive reaction with the WSPSLO from infected CHSE-214 cells. The WSPSLO as propagated in CHSE-214 cells was highly virulent for juvenile coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch, inducing 80% mortality within 10 d of intraperitoneal injection of 102.5 50% tissue culture infectious doses per fish. We conclude that the bacterium from white seabass possesses antigenic differences from P. salmonis yet possesses virulence for salmon equal to known strains of P. salmonis.

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