A period of transient viremia and occult infection precedes persistent viremia and antiviral immune responses during multiple low-dose intravaginal simian immunodeficiency virus inoculations

Zhong Min Ma, Kristina Abel, Tracy Rourke, Yichuan Wang, Chris J Miller

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

51 Scopus citations


In rhesus macaques, classic systemic infection, characterized by persistent viremia and seroconversion, occurred after multiple low-dose (103 50% tissue culture infective doses) intravaginal (IVAG) inoculations with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strain SIVmac251. Monkeys developed classic SIV infections after a variable number of low-dose IVAG exposures to SIVmac251. Once established, the systemic infection was identical to SIV infection following high-dose IVAG SIV inoculation. However, occult systemic infection characterized by transient cell-associated or cell-free viremia consistently occurred early in the series of multiple vaginal SIV exposures. Further, antiviral cellular immune responses were present prior to the establishment of a classic systemic infection in the low-dose vaginal SIV transmission model.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)14048-14052
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Virology
Issue number24
StatePublished - Dec 2004


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology

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