A nested PCR for detection of North American isolates of bluetongue virus based on NS1 genome sequence analysis of BTV-17

Imadeldin E. Aradaib, Caroline E. Schore, James S Cullor, Bennie Osburn

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

30 Scopus citations


A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assay, for detection of bluetongue virus (BTV) ribonucleic acid in cell culture and tissue samples, was developed. Two pairs of oligonucleotide primers (BTV1 and BTV4 and BTV2 and BTV3), selected from non-structural protein 1 (NS1) gene of BTV-17, were used for the nested PCR in two amplification steps. First a 826-bp product was amplified using an outer primer pair BTV1 and BTV4. The second amplification, using nested or internal primer pair BTV2 and BTV3, produced a 517-bp PCR product. RNA from North American prototype serotypes 2, 10, 11, 13 and 17, propagated in cell cultures, were detected by this nested PCR-based assay. The nested primers BTV2 and BTV3 increased the sensitivity of the BTV PCR assay, and as little as 0.1 fg of BTV RNA (equivalent to 5 viral particles) could be detected. Amplification products were not detected when the PCR-based assay was applied to RNA from a closely related orbivirus, epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) prototype serotypes 1 and 2; total nucleic acid extracts from uninfected BHK-21 cells; or whole blood from calves and deer that were BTV-seronegative and virus isolation negative. Application of this nested BTV PCR-based assay to clinical samples resulted in detection of BTV RNA from a variety of tissues collected from calves and deer with natural and experimental BTV infections. The described BTV PCR- based assay provides a valuable tool to study the epidemiology of BTV infection in susceptible wild ruminants and domestic livestock.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)99-108
Number of pages10
JournalVeterinary Microbiology
Issue number2-3
StatePublished - Jan 16 1998


  • Bluetongue virus
  • Diagnosis-viruses
  • Genetics
  • Serogroup-specificity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Animal Science and Zoology
  • Microbiology
  • veterinary(all)


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