A multi-compartment, single and multiple dose pharmacokinetic study of the vaginal candidate microbicide 1% tenofovir gel

Jill L. Schwartz, Wes Rountree, Angela D M Kashuba, Vivian Brache, Mitchell D Creinin, Alfred Poindexter, Brian P. Kearney

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

80 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Tenofovir (TFV) gel is being evaluated as a microbicide with pericoital and daily regimens. To inhibit viral replication locally, an adequate concentration in the genital tract is critical. Methods and Findings: Forty-nine participants entered a two-phase study: single-dose (SD) and multi-dose (MD), were randomized to collection of genital tract samples (endocervical cells [ECC], cervicovaginal aspirate and vaginal biopsies) at one of seven time points [0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 24 hr(s)] post-dose following SD exposure of 4 mL 1% TFV gel and received a single dose. Forty-seven were randomized to once (QD) or twice daily (BID) dosing for 2 weeks and to collection of genital tract samples at 4, 8 or 24 hrs after the final dose, but two discontinued prior to gel application. Blood was collected during both phases at the seven times post-dose. TFV exposure was low in blood plasma for SD and MD; median C max was 4.0 and 3.4 ng/mL, respectively (C≤29 ng/mL). TFV concentrations were high in aspirates and tissue after SD and MD, ranging from 1.2×10 4 to 9.9×10 6 ng/mL and 2.1×10 2 to 1.4×10 6 ng/mL, respectively, and did not noticeably differ between proximal and distal tissue. TFV diphosphate (TFV-DP), the intracellular active metabolite, was high in ECC, ranging from 7.1×10 3 to 8.8×10 6 ng/mL. TFV-DP was detectable in approximately 40% of the tissue samples, ranging from 1.8×10 2 to 3.5×10 4 ng/mL. AUC for tissue TFV-DP was two logs higher after MD compared to SD, with no noticeable differences when comparing QD and BID. Conclusions: Single-dose and multiple-dose TFV gel exposure resulted in high genital tract concentrations for at least 24 hours post-dose with minimal systemic absorption. These results support further study of TFV gel for HIV prevention. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00561496.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere25974
JournalPLoS One
Volume6
Issue number10
DOIs
StatePublished - 2011

    Fingerprint

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Medicine(all)

Cite this