A mathematical model that predicts the force-frequency relationship of human skeletal muscle

Jun Ding, Anthony S. Wexler, Stuart A. Binder-Macleod

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

54 Scopus citations


In previous work we developed and validated a mathematical model that predicted force output from skeletal muscles subjected to sixpulse stimulation trains under isometric condition. The current study investigated the model's ability to predict force responses to longer stimulation trains under both nonfatigued and fatigued conditions. Using the six-pulse train model to predict the force produced by longer stimulation trains showed that the model was successful, but a modified parameter identification scheme was required. For most of the trains tested the model accounted for 95% of the variance in the experimental forces produced by stimulation trains, with mean frequencies from 12.5 to 100 Hz, train durations from 485 to 1000 ms, and number of pulses from 14 to 50 for both nonfatigued and fatigued muscles. The success of our mathematical model in predicting forces produced by stimulations with a wide range of frequencies, durations, and number of pulses implies great potential of the model for the identification of optimal activation patterns that should be used during functional electrical stimulation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-485
Number of pages9
JournalMuscle and Nerve
Issue number4
StatePublished - Oct 1 2002


  • Doublets
  • Functional electrical stimulation
  • Hill-type muscle model
  • Variable-frequency trains

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience(all)


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