A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp

Ronald Hedrick, O. Gilad, S. Yun, J. V. Spangenberg, G. D. Marty, R. W. Nordhausen, M. J. Kebus, H. Bercovier, A. Eldar

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

310 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

A herpesvirus was isolated from adult koi, a strain of common carp Cyprinus carpio, suffering mass mortality in two outbreaks—one in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States and the second in Israel. The principal external signs of dying fish were pale and irregularly colored gills. There were few consistent internal signs in either outbreak. The most prominent microscopic lesions were in the gills, where hyperplasia and necrosis of the epithelium were severe. Other lesions included interstitial nephritis, splenitis, and enteritis. Affected cells often contained nuclei with marginated chromatin and faint intranuclear inclusions. Typical herpesvirus particles were present in branchial epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and among circulating leukocytes. Inoculations of the koi fin (KF-1) cell line with tissue extracts from the gill and kidney–spleen resulted in cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation first detected after 7 d incubation at 208C. Exposures of adult koi to the herpesvirus as propagated in KF-1 cells by bath or intraperitoneal injections resulted in 80–100% mortality during a 26-d period, and the virus was reisolated from the gill, kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, and brain of dead fish. The viral agents from koi in Israel and the United States appear to be similar if not identical; both could be distinguished from Herpesvirus cyprini by indirect fluorescent antibody tests with rabbit anti-H. cyprini serum. Other factors should be examined but we strongly suspect that this newly recognized koi herpesvirus (KHV) has the potential to be a significant cause of mortality among koi and presumably common carp.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-57
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Aquatic Animal Health
Volume12
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2000

Fingerprint

koi
mass mortality
Cyprinus carpio
lesion
gills
mortality
fish
inoculation
antibody
brain
serum
virus
lesions (animal)
incubation
Israel
Cyprinid herpesvirus 3
Mid-Atlantic region
nephritis
cytopathogenicity
enteritis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aquatic Science

Cite this

A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp. / Hedrick, Ronald; Gilad, O.; Yun, S.; Spangenberg, J. V.; Marty, G. D.; Nordhausen, R. W.; Kebus, M. J.; Bercovier, H.; Eldar, A.

In: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, Vol. 12, No. 1, 01.01.2000, p. 44-57.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

Hedrick, R, Gilad, O, Yun, S, Spangenberg, JV, Marty, GD, Nordhausen, RW, Kebus, MJ, Bercovier, H & Eldar, A 2000, 'A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp', Journal of Aquatic Animal Health, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 44-57. https://doi.org/10.1577/1548-8667(2000)012<0044:AHAWMM>2.0.CO;2
Hedrick, Ronald ; Gilad, O. ; Yun, S. ; Spangenberg, J. V. ; Marty, G. D. ; Nordhausen, R. W. ; Kebus, M. J. ; Bercovier, H. ; Eldar, A. / A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp. In: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health. 2000 ; Vol. 12, No. 1. pp. 44-57.
@article{110d3d8c5799447385978b60c5bc3af0,
title = "A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp",
abstract = "A herpesvirus was isolated from adult koi, a strain of common carp Cyprinus carpio, suffering mass mortality in two outbreaks—one in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States and the second in Israel. The principal external signs of dying fish were pale and irregularly colored gills. There were few consistent internal signs in either outbreak. The most prominent microscopic lesions were in the gills, where hyperplasia and necrosis of the epithelium were severe. Other lesions included interstitial nephritis, splenitis, and enteritis. Affected cells often contained nuclei with marginated chromatin and faint intranuclear inclusions. Typical herpesvirus particles were present in branchial epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and among circulating leukocytes. Inoculations of the koi fin (KF-1) cell line with tissue extracts from the gill and kidney–spleen resulted in cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation first detected after 7 d incubation at 208C. Exposures of adult koi to the herpesvirus as propagated in KF-1 cells by bath or intraperitoneal injections resulted in 80–100{\%} mortality during a 26-d period, and the virus was reisolated from the gill, kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, and brain of dead fish. The viral agents from koi in Israel and the United States appear to be similar if not identical; both could be distinguished from Herpesvirus cyprini by indirect fluorescent antibody tests with rabbit anti-H. cyprini serum. Other factors should be examined but we strongly suspect that this newly recognized koi herpesvirus (KHV) has the potential to be a significant cause of mortality among koi and presumably common carp.",
author = "Ronald Hedrick and O. Gilad and S. Yun and Spangenberg, {J. V.} and Marty, {G. D.} and Nordhausen, {R. W.} and Kebus, {M. J.} and H. Bercovier and A. Eldar",
year = "2000",
month = "1",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1577/1548-8667(2000)012<0044:AHAWMM>2.0.CO;2",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "12",
pages = "44--57",
journal = "Journal of Aquatic Animal Health",
issn = "0899-7659",
publisher = "American Fisheries Society",
number = "1",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - A herpesvirus associated with mass mortality of juvenile and adult koi, a strain of common carp

AU - Hedrick, Ronald

AU - Gilad, O.

AU - Yun, S.

AU - Spangenberg, J. V.

AU - Marty, G. D.

AU - Nordhausen, R. W.

AU - Kebus, M. J.

AU - Bercovier, H.

AU - Eldar, A.

PY - 2000/1/1

Y1 - 2000/1/1

N2 - A herpesvirus was isolated from adult koi, a strain of common carp Cyprinus carpio, suffering mass mortality in two outbreaks—one in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States and the second in Israel. The principal external signs of dying fish were pale and irregularly colored gills. There were few consistent internal signs in either outbreak. The most prominent microscopic lesions were in the gills, where hyperplasia and necrosis of the epithelium were severe. Other lesions included interstitial nephritis, splenitis, and enteritis. Affected cells often contained nuclei with marginated chromatin and faint intranuclear inclusions. Typical herpesvirus particles were present in branchial epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and among circulating leukocytes. Inoculations of the koi fin (KF-1) cell line with tissue extracts from the gill and kidney–spleen resulted in cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation first detected after 7 d incubation at 208C. Exposures of adult koi to the herpesvirus as propagated in KF-1 cells by bath or intraperitoneal injections resulted in 80–100% mortality during a 26-d period, and the virus was reisolated from the gill, kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, and brain of dead fish. The viral agents from koi in Israel and the United States appear to be similar if not identical; both could be distinguished from Herpesvirus cyprini by indirect fluorescent antibody tests with rabbit anti-H. cyprini serum. Other factors should be examined but we strongly suspect that this newly recognized koi herpesvirus (KHV) has the potential to be a significant cause of mortality among koi and presumably common carp.

AB - A herpesvirus was isolated from adult koi, a strain of common carp Cyprinus carpio, suffering mass mortality in two outbreaks—one in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States and the second in Israel. The principal external signs of dying fish were pale and irregularly colored gills. There were few consistent internal signs in either outbreak. The most prominent microscopic lesions were in the gills, where hyperplasia and necrosis of the epithelium were severe. Other lesions included interstitial nephritis, splenitis, and enteritis. Affected cells often contained nuclei with marginated chromatin and faint intranuclear inclusions. Typical herpesvirus particles were present in branchial epithelial cells, hepatocytes, and among circulating leukocytes. Inoculations of the koi fin (KF-1) cell line with tissue extracts from the gill and kidney–spleen resulted in cytopathic effects characterized by severe vacuolation first detected after 7 d incubation at 208C. Exposures of adult koi to the herpesvirus as propagated in KF-1 cells by bath or intraperitoneal injections resulted in 80–100% mortality during a 26-d period, and the virus was reisolated from the gill, kidney, liver, spleen, intestine, and brain of dead fish. The viral agents from koi in Israel and the United States appear to be similar if not identical; both could be distinguished from Herpesvirus cyprini by indirect fluorescent antibody tests with rabbit anti-H. cyprini serum. Other factors should be examined but we strongly suspect that this newly recognized koi herpesvirus (KHV) has the potential to be a significant cause of mortality among koi and presumably common carp.

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0033902617&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0033902617&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1577/1548-8667(2000)012<0044:AHAWMM>2.0.CO;2

DO - 10.1577/1548-8667(2000)012<0044:AHAWMM>2.0.CO;2

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:0033902617

VL - 12

SP - 44

EP - 57

JO - Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

JF - Journal of Aquatic Animal Health

SN - 0899-7659

IS - 1

ER -