A genomic point-of-view on environmental factors influencing the human brain methylome

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63 Scopus citations


The etiologic paradigm of complex human disorders such as autism is that genetic and environmental risk factors are independent and additive, but the interactive effects at the epigenetic interface are largely ignored. Genomic technologies have radically changed perspective on the human genome and how the epigenetic interface may impact complex human disorders. Here, I review recent genomic, environmental and epigenetic findings that suggest a new paradigm of "integrative genomics" in which genetic variation in genomic size may be impacted by dietary and environmental factors that influence the genomic saturation of DNA methylation. Human genomes are highly repetitive, but the interface of large-scale genomic differences with environmental factors that alter the DNA methylome such as dietary folate is under-explored. In addition to obvious direct effects of some environmental toxins on the genome by causing chromosomal breaks, nonmutagenic toxin exposures correlate with DNA hypomethylation that can lead to rearrangements between repeats or increased retrotransposition. Since human neurodevelopment appears to be particularly sensitive to alterations in epigenetic pathways, a further focus will be on how developing neurons may be particularly impacted by even subtle alterations to DNA methylation and proposing new directions towards understanding the quixotic etiology of autism by integrative genomic approaches.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)862-869
Number of pages8
Issue number7
StatePublished - Jul 2011


  • Alu
  • Autism
  • Copy number variation
  • DNA methylation
  • Environmental exposures
  • Epigenetics
  • Epigenomics
  • Folate
  • Folic acid
  • Genomics
  • LINE-1
  • MeCP2
  • Neurodevelopment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Molecular Biology
  • Cancer Research


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