A comparison of normalization effects on three whole-body cylindrical 3D PET systems

Ramsey D Badawi, N. C. Ferreira, S. G. Kohlmyer, M. Dahlbom, P. K. Marsden, T. K. Lewellen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Normalization coefficients in three-dimensional positron emission tomography (3D PET) are affected by parameters such as camera geometry and the design and arrangement of the block detectors. In this work, normalization components for three whole-body 3D-capable tomographs (the GE Advance, the Siemens/CT1962/HR+ and the Siemens/CT1951R) are compared by means of a series of scans using uniform cylindrical and rotating line sources. Where applicable, the manufacturers' normalization methods are validated, and it is shown that these methods can be improved upon by using previously published normalization protocols. Those architectural differences between the three tomographs that affect normalization are discussed with a view to drawing more general conclusions about the effect of machine architecture on normalization. The data presented suggest that uniformity of system response becomes easier to achieve as the uniformity of crystal response within the detector block is improved.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3253-3266
Number of pages14
JournalPhysics in Medicine and Biology
Issue number11
StatePublished - 2000
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Physics and Astronomy (miscellaneous)
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology


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