A comparison of HIV-1, HBV, and HTLV-I/II seroprevalence rates of injured patients admitted through California emergency departments

Kenneth J. Rhee, Timothy E Albertson, Kenneth W Kizer, Michael J. Burns, Michael J. Hughes, Michael S. Ascher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

10 Scopus citations

Abstract

Study objective: To determine the seroprevalence rates of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-I/II) and to compare these rates with the HIV-1 seroprevalence rate in a sample of injured patients admitted through ten California emergency departments. Design: Prospective blinded testing for serologic markers for HBV, HTLV-I/II, and HIV-1 on routinely collected blood samples. Setting: Ten California hospitals were chosen to reflect geographic and demographic diversity. Type of participants: All injured adult patients who were admitted to a participating hospital through the ED during consecutive three-month periods from June through November 1989. Measurements: Serum samples were tested for HIV-1 antibody, HTLV-I/II antibody, and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using standard methods. Mann-Whitney U tests, χ2 tests for independence, sign tests, χ2 tests for goodness of fit, and logistic regression were used as appropriate. Results: Seroprevalence rates were as follows: HBV, 2.6% (57 of 2,209); HTLV-I/II, 2.0% (46 of 2,262); and HIV-1, 1.4% (31 of 2,264). Conclusion: The seroprevalence rate of HBV was slightly higher than that of HIV-1 in this sample of injured patients. Mortality estimates suggest, however, that HBV and HIV-1 pose roughly similar risks to emergency personnel, although the risk of HBV infection can be markedly reduced by vaccination. The data from this and other studies suggest that the ED incidence of HTLV-I/II in United States is low. The relative health risks to emergency personnel from HTLV-I/II appear to be minimal at this time.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)397-401
Number of pages5
JournalAnnals of Emergency Medicine
Volume21
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - 1992

Keywords

  • HBV, seroprevalence
  • HIV-1, seroprevalence
  • HTVL-I/II seroprevalence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Emergency Medicine

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