A simulation study using Greenwood's chain-binomial model was carried out to elucidate the spread and control of Mycobacterium tuberculosis among the household contacts of infectious pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients. Based on the observed data, the maximum-likelihood estimates (±S.E.) of chain-binomial probabilities of intra-household M. tuberculosis transmission from an index case in 3-person and 4-person households were 0.313 ± 0.008 and 0.325 ± 0.009 respectively. The χ2 goodness-of-fit test of observed and simulated mean expected frequencies of cases revealed good fit for 3-person (P = 0.979) and 4-person (P = 0.546) households. With the assumption of varying risk of M. tuberculosis transmission across the households under β-distribution, goodness-of-fit tests of observed and mean simulated expected frequencies revealed the inadequacy of Greenwood's chain-binomial model both for 3-person (P = 0.0185) and 4-person (P < 0.001) households. Simulated M. tuberculosis control strategy comprising efficient diagnosis, segregation and prompt antibiotic therapy of index pulmonary TB patients showed a substantial reduction of new cases among the household contacts in both household sizes. In conclusion, segregation coupled with prompt antibiotic therapy of the index case, chemoprophylaxis of M. tuberculosis-exposed household contacts, and the assessment of household environmental risks to devise and implement an educational programme may help reduce the TB burden in this and similar settings.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Infectious Diseases