Granulomatosis with polyangiitis is a rare type of vasculitis that affects small-sized and medium-sized vessels. Any organ system can become affected, but it most commonly affects the upper airways, lungs and kidneys. The a1-antitrypsin deficiency is another rare disease that involves a genetic deficiency in the enzyme antitrypsin, which is produced in the liver and protects the lung against proteinases. The simultaneous occurrence of these two diseases is very rare and has been described. We present a case of granulomatosis with polyangiitis limited to the upper airways, and a1-antitrypsin deficiency occurring in the same patient. The patient presented with recurrent upper airway infections. The patient was treated with steroids and azathioprine which prevented recurrence of symptoms. High clinical suspicion of the concomitant occurrence of a1-antitrypsin deficiency in patients with vasculitis is essential to provide patients with adequate screening and treatment.
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