Project: Research project

Project Details


Socioeconomic status is a known strong correlate of arthritis prevalence
and severity, disability, and frailty.. But there are two gaps in our
knowledge of the correlation. First, few studies have investigated the
strength of the association among minority (Black, Hispanic) seniors and
drawn comparisons to Whites. Second, only one study (Leigh, Fries,
Arthritis and Rheumatism, in press) with which I am familiar has
investigated the three components of socioeconomic status--education,
occupation, and income--as separate covariates of frailty. If causation
runs from socioeconomic status to frailty then this is unfortunate, since
from a prevention point of view, education, occupation, and income are
separate entities. If income is the most important of the three, then
implications might be drawn concerning, for example, the relation between
Social Security benefits and frailty. If occupation, or main occupation
prior to retirement, is the most important, then implications might be
drawn for Occupational Safety and Health regulations. If, finally,
education is the most important, and if, again, education is presumed to
influence frailty rather than vice versa, investments in education may be
potent preventive medicine. While occupation and income will be
considered, the proposed research will devote the greatest attention to
education since education has received the most prior research attention. Four data sets will be analyzed: the National Health and Nutrition
Examination Survey 1 1971-75 (NHANES 1); II 1976-86 (NHANES 11);
Epidemiological Follow-up to NHANES I (NHEFS), and the Hispanic Health and
Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES). Dependent variables will include
self-reported arthritis, self-reported doctors' diagnoses of arthritis,
selfreported health limitations from working or daily activities, a
disability scale based on 25 questions; self-reports on pain in joints,
back, neck, and knees. Independent variables will include gender, age,
square of age, marital status, years of schooling completed, main lifetime
occupation, current occupation, and income. Methods will include Ordinary
Least Squares, Weighted Least Squares, Logistic, Weighted Logistic, and
Instrumental Variables to account for selection bias. Blacks and Whites will be analyzed with data from the NHANES 1, 11, and
NHEFS. Hispanics will be analyzed with data from the HHANES. Attention
will be restricted to persons 65 years of age and older.
Effective start/end date9/30/918/31/93


  • National Institutes of Health: $48,106.00


  • Medicine(all)


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